Visual Cells of the Introduced Bluegill Lepomis macrochirus (Pisces; Centropomidae) of Korea

  • Kim, Jae Goo ;
  • Park, Jong Young
  • Received : 2016.06.21
  • Accepted : 2016.06.25
  • Published : 2016.06.30


The bluegill Lepomis macrochirus is an invasive species, not native to Korea, introduced for aquaculture. This species is ranked as a new top predator due to its massive aquatic carnivorous and herbivorous nature by acute vision and the absence of a natural enemy. The visual cells of the retina of L. macrochirus are composed of short single cones and equal double cones and long and bulky rods by light and electron microscopes. In particular, the cones show a regular square mosaic arrangement. This pattern is widely considered as a strong predator. With regard to the visual system, this mosaic pattern may closely be related to a dynamic visual acuity to track and hunt prey.


Bluegill;Retina;Cone cell;Rod cell;Square mosaic pattern


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