Exposure Characteristics of Particles during the After-treatment Processes of Aluminum Oxide Fibers and Nickel Powders

산화알루미늄 섬유와 니켈분말 후처리공정에서 입자의 노출특성

Kim, Jong Bum;Kim, Kyung Hwan;Ryu, Sung Hee;Yun, Seong-Taek;Bae, Gwi-Nam

  • Received : 2016.01.14
  • Accepted : 2016.06.07
  • Published : 2016.06.30


Objectives: Nanomaterials have been used in various fields. As use of nanoproducts is increasing, workers dealing with nanomaterials are also gradually increasing. Exposure assessments for nanomaterials have been carried out for protection of worker's health in workplace. Exposure studies were mainly focused on manufacturing processes, but these studies on after-treatment processes such as refinement, weighing, and packing were insufficient. So, we investigated exposure characteristics of particles during after-treatment processes of $Al_2O_3$ fibers and Ni powders. Methods: Mass-production of Ni powder process was carried out in enclosed capture-type canopy hood. In a developing stage, $Al_2O_3$ was handled with a local ventilation unit. Exposure characteristics of particles were investigated for $Al_2O_3$ fiber and Ni powder processes during the periods of 10:00 to 16:00, 20 May 2014 and 13:00 to 16:00, 21 May 2014, respectively. Three real-time aerosol instruments were utilized in exposure assessment. A scanning mobility particle sizer(SMPS, nanoscan, model 3910, TSI) and an optical particle counter(OPC, portable aerosol spectrometer, model 1.109, Grimm) were used to determine the particle size distribution in the size range of 10-420 nm and $0.25-32{\mu}m$, respectively. In addition, a nanoparticle aerosol monitor(NAM, model 9000, TSI) was used to measure lung-deposited nanoparticle surface area. Membrane filters(isopore membrane filter, pore size of 100 nm) were also used for air sampling for the FE-SEM(model S-5000H, Hitachi) analysis using a personal sampling pump(model GilAir Plus by 2.5 L/min, Gilian). Conclusions: For Ni powder after-treatment process, only 27% increase in particle concentration was found during the process. However, for $Al_2O_3$ fiber after-treatment process, significant exposure(1.56-3.34 times) was observed during the process.


after-treatment process;exposure characteristics;particle;ventilation system


  1. Korea Institute of Science and Technology Information (KISTI). Korea Nanotechnology Annual 2012
  2. Lee JH, Lee JY, Yu IJ. Developing Korean standard for nanomaterial exposure assessment. Toxicol Res 2011;27(2):53-60
  3. Lee JH, Kwon MR, Ji JH, Kang CS, Ahn KH et al. Exposure assessment of workplaces manufacturing nanosized $TiO_{2}$ and silver. Inhal Toxicol 2011;23(4):226-236
  4. Liao CM, Chiang YH, Chio CP. Assessing the airborne titanium dioxide nanoparticle-related exposure hazard at workplace. Journal of Hazadous Materials 2009;162:57-65
  5. Mohlmann C, Welter J, Klenke M, Sander J. Workplace exposure at nanomaterial production processes. Nanosafe 2008: International Conference on Safe Production and Use of Nanomaterials 2008;10.1088/1742-6596/170/1/012004
  6. OECD. sponsorship programme for the testing of manufactured nanomaterials. 2013; Available from: URL:
  7. Park SH, Jung JH, Lee SB, Bae GN, Ji HS et al. Characteristics of background nanoparticle concentration in a $TiO_{2}$ manufacturing laboratory. Par Aerosol Res 2011;7(4):113-121
  8. Ramachandran G, Ostraat M, Evans DE, Methner MM, O'Shaughnessy P et al. A strategy for assessing workplace exposures to nanomaterials. J Occup Environ Hyg 2012;8:673-685
  9. Reijinders L. The release of $TiO_{2}$ and $SiO_{2}$ nanoparticles from nanocomposites. Polym Degrad Stabil 2009:94;873-876
  10. Tsai CJ, Huang CY, Chen SC, Ho CE, Huang CH et al. Exposure assessment of nano-sized and respirable particles at different workplaces. J Naopart Res 2011;13:4161-4172
  11. Wiesner MR, Lowry GV, Alvarez P, Dionysiou D, Biswas P. Assessing the risks of manufactured nanomaterials. Envion Sci Technol 2006;4337-4345
  12. Yang Y, Mao P, Xu C, Chen SW, Zhang JH et al. Distribution characteristics of nano-$TiO_{2}$ aerosol in the workplace, Aerosol Air Qual Res 2011;11:466-472
  13. Han BS, Cho WS, Lee BJ, Nam SY, Ahn BW. Nanothecnology and safety of nanomaterials. J Biomed Research 2005;6(1):13-19
  14. Kim SN, Kang MS, Han YA, Kim JW, Roh J et al. Toxicity analysis of carbon nanotubes based on their physicochemical properties. Clean Technol 2011; 17(3):273-279


Grant : 특화전문대학원연계학연협력

Supported by : 한국과학기술연구원