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Study on Environmental Hazards of Alternatives for PFOS

PFOS 대체물질의 환경유해성에 관한 연구

  • Choi, Bong-In (Environmental Safety Center, Korea Environmental Corporation) ;
  • Chung, Seon-Yong (Department of Environment and Energy Engineering, Chonnam National University College of Engineering) ;
  • Na, Suk-Hyun (Department of Environment and Energy Engineering, Chonnam National University College of Engineering) ;
  • Shin, Dong-Soo (Department of Chemistry, Changwon National University) ;
  • Ryu, Byung-Taek (Environmental Safety Center, Korea Environmental Corporation)
  • 최봉인 (한국환경공단 환경안전센터) ;
  • 정선용 (전남대학교 환경에너지공학과) ;
  • 나숙현 (전남대학교 환경에너지공학과) ;
  • 신동수 (창원대학교 화학과) ;
  • 유병택 (한국환경공단 환경안전센터)
  • Received : 2016.04.12
  • Accepted : 2016.04.25
  • Published : 2016.06.30

Abstract

While PFOS sodium salt ($C_8F_{17}SO_3Na$) was not degraded by microorganisms for 28 days, the 4 alternatives were biodegraded at the rates of 21.6% for $C_{25}F_{17}H_{32}S_3O_{13}Na_3$, 20.5% for $C_{15}F_9H_{21}S_2O_8Na_2$, 15.8% for $C_{23}F_{18}H_{28}S_2O_8Na_2$ and 6.4% for $C_{17}F_9H_{25}S_2O_8Na_2$, respectively. The acute toxicity test using Daphnia magna was conducted for 48 hours, the half effective concentration ($EC_{50}$) of PFOS sodium salt ($C_8F_{17}SO_3Na$) was evaluated in 54.5 mg/L. While the 4 alternatives did not show any effect at 500.0 mg/L. The surface tension of the PFOS salt ($C_8F_{17}SO_3Na$) is 46.2 mN/m at a concentration of 500.0 mg/L. While the surface tension of the 4 alternatives was found to be superior to PFOS sodium salt ($C_8F_{17}SO_3Na$). The surface tension of $C_{23}F_{18}H_{28}S_2O_8Na_2$ (20.9 mN/m) has the lowest, followed by $C_{15}F_9H_{21}S_2O_8Na_2$ (23.4 mN/m), $C_{17}F_9H_{25}S_2O_8Na_2$ (27.3 mN/m), $C_{25}F_{17}H_{32}S_3O_{13}Na_3$ (28.2 mN/m). The four kinds of alternatives ($C_{15}F_9H_{21}S_2O_8Na_2$, $C_{17}F_9H_{25}S_2O_8Na_2$, $C_{23}F_{18}H_{28}S_2O_8Na_2$, $C_{25}F_{17}H_{32}S_3O_{13}Na_3$) were found to be superior to PFOS sodium salt ($C_8F_{17}SO_3Na$) in terms of biodegradation, Daphnia sp. acute toxicity and surface tension, and thus they were considered applicable as PFOS alternatives. Especially biodegradation rate of $C_{15}F_9H_{21}S_2O_8Na_2$, $C_{23}F_{18}H_{28}S_2O_8Na_2$ and $C_{25}F_{17}H_{32}S_3O_{13}Na_3$ was relatively high as 15.8~21.6%, and Daphnia sp. acute toxicity and surface tension were considerably superior (surface tension 39~55%) to PFOS sodium salt. Therefore, these alternatives are considered to be available as an alternative of PFOS.

PFOS sodium salt ($C_8F_{17}SO_3Na$)는 28일 동안 미생물에 의한 분해가 이루어지지 않은 반면 4종의 대체물질($C_{25}F_{17}H_{32}S_3O_{13}Na_3$, $C_{15}F_9H_{21}S_2O_8Na_2$, $C_{23}F_{18}H_{28}S_2O_8Na_2$, $C_{17}F_9H_{25}S_2O_8Na_2$)은 각각 21.6%, 20.5%, 15.8% 그리고 6.4% 분해가 이루어졌다. Daphnia magna를 이용하여 48시간 동안 수행한 물벼룩급성독성시험에서 sodium salt ($C_8F_{17}SO_3Na$)의 반수영향농도($EC_{50}$)는 54.5 mg/L 인 것으로 확인된 반면 4종의 대체물질은 500.0 mg/L에서 아무런 영향이 나타나지 않았다. 500.0 mg/L에서 PFOS sodium salt($C_8F_{17}SO_3Na$)의 표면장력은 46.2 mN/m이었으며 대체물질 4종의 표면장력은 모두 PFOS sodium salt 보다 우수한 것으로 확인되었다. $C_{23}F_{18}H_{28}S_2O_8Na_2$ (20.9 mN/m)는 가장 낮은 표면장력을 갖고 있었다. 그 다음은 $C_{15}F_9H_{21}S_2O_8Na_2$ (23.4 mN/m), $C_{17}F_9H_{25}S_2O_8Na_2$ (27.3 mN/m) 그리고 $C_{25}F_{17}H_{32}S_3O_{13}Na_3$ (28.2 mN/m) 순인 것으로 확인되었다. 미생물분해시험, 물벼룩급성독성시험 그리고 표면장력측정 결과를 종합해 보면 4종의 PFOS 대체물질($C_{25}F_{17}H_{32}S_3O_{13}Na_3$, $C_{15}F_9H_{21}S_2O_8Na_2$, $C_{23}F_{18}H_{28}S_2O_8Na_2$, $C_{17}F_9H_{25}S_2O_8Na_2$)은 모두 PFOS sodium salt ($C_8F_{17}SO_3Na$) 보다 우수한 것으로 확인되었으며 특히 3종의 대체물질($C_{15}F_9H_{21}S_2O_8Na_2$, $C_{23}F_{18}H_{28}S_2O_8Na_2$, $C_{25}F_{17}H_{32}S_3O_{13}Na_3$)은 미생물분해율이 15.8~21.6%로 상대적으로 높고, 물벼룩급성독성과 표면장력측정이 PFOS sodium salt 보다 상당히 우수하다. 그러므로 이들 4종의 대체물질은 PFOS 대체물질로 활용이 가능할 것으로 판단된다.

Keywords

Acknowledgement

Supported by : 한국환경산업기술원

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