Genetic Character and Insecticide Susceptibility on a Korean Population of a Subtropical Species, Maruca vitrata

아열대성 콩명나방의 국내 집단에 대한 유전적 특성과 살충제 감수성 분석

  • Kim, Yonggyun (Department of Plant Medicals, Andong National University) ;
  • Sadekuzzaman, Md. (Department of Bioresource Sciences, Andong National University) ;
  • Kim, Minhyun (Department of Plant Medicals, Andong National University) ;
  • Kim, Kyusoon (Department of Plant Medicals, Andong National University) ;
  • Park, Youngjin (Department of Bioresource Sciences, Andong National University) ;
  • Jung, Jin Kyo (Division of Crop Cultivation and Environment Research, Department of Central Area Crop Science, National Institute of Crop Science, Rural Development Adminstration)
  • Received : 2016.05.03
  • Accepted : 2016.07.15
  • Published : 2016.09.01


Subtropical insect pests expand their habitats by migration to temperate zones along with global climate change. A subtropical insect pest, Maruca vitrata, is infesting leguminous crops including azuka beans in Korea and gives significant economic damages. Its great genetic variation raised an issue of the origin of a Korean M. vitrata population. To understand the genetic character of the Korean population, its cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (cox 1) gene was sequenced and phylogenetically analyzed with other regional populations. The world populations of M. vitrata were grouped into three clusters: Asia-African, American, and Oceanian. The Korean population was classified into Asia-African cluster. To characterize the insecticide susceptibility of the Korean population, seven different insecticides (4 neutoxic insecticides, 1 insect growth regulator, 2 biopesticides) were assessed. Young larvae of M. vitrata were relatively susceptible to all tested insecticides. However, old larvae were much less susceptible than young larvae. No test insecticides effectively (> 50%) killed the old larvae of M. vitrata within 7 days.


Maruca vitrata;Cytochrome oxidase;Insecticide;Genetic relatedness


Supported by : 농촌진흥청


  1. Adati, T., Tatsuki, S., 1999. Identification of female sex pheromone of the legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata and antagonistic effects of geometrical isomers. J. Chem. Ecol. 25, 105-116.
  2. Bae, Y.S. 2001. Family Pyraloidea: Pyraustinae & Pyralinae. Economic Insects of Korea 9. Ins. Koreana Suppl. 16, 252pp.
  3. Cognato, A.I., 2006. Standard percent DNA sequence difference for insects does not predict species boundaries. J. Econ. Entomol. 99, 1037-1045.
  4. Downham, M.C.A., Hall, D.R., Chamberlain, D.J., Cork, A., Farman, D.I., Tamo, M., Dahounto, D., Datinon, B., Adetonah, S., 2003. Minor components in the sex pheromone of legume pod-borer: Maruca vitrata development of an attractive blend. J. Chem. Ecol. 29, 989-1012.
  5. Downham, M.C.A., Tamo, M., Hall, D.R., Datinon, B., Adetonah, S., Farman, D.I., 2004. Developing pheromone traps and lures for Maruca vitrata in Berlin, West Africa. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 64, 183-186.
  6. Ekesi, S., 1999. Insecticide resistance in field populations of the legume pod-borer, Maruca vitrata Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), on cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.), Walp in Nigeria. Intl. J. Pest Manage. 45, 57-59.
  7. Goh, H.G., Lee, S.G., Lee, B.P., Choi, K.M., Kim, J.H., 1990. Simple mass-rearing of beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hubner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), on an artificial diet. Kor. J. Appl. Entomol. 29, 180-183.
  8. Grigolli, J.F.J., Lourencao, A.L.F., Avila, C.J., 2015. Field efficacy of chemical pesticides against Maruca vitrata Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) infesting soybean in Brazil. Am. J. Plant. Sci. 6, 537-544.
  9. Hall, T.A., 1999. BioEdit: a user-friendly biological sequence alignment editor and analysis program for Windows 95/98/NT. Nucl. Acids Symp. Ser. 41, 95-98.
  10. Hassan, M.N., 2007. Re-investigation of the female sex pheromone of the legume pod-borer, Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae). PhD Dissertation, University of Greenwich, London, UK.
  11. Herbison-Evans, D., Crossley, S., Hacobian, B., 2011. Maruca vitrata (Fabricius, 1787).
  12. Huesing, J.E., Romeis, J., Ellstrand, N.C., Raybould, A., Kellmich, R.L., Wolt, J.D., Ehlers, J.D., Clementine Dabire-Binso, L., Fatokun, C.A., Hokanson, K.E., Ishiyaku, M.F., Margam, V.M., Obokoh, N., Mignouna, J.D., Nang'ayo, F., Ouedraogo, J.T., Pasquet, R.S., Pittendrigh, B.R., Schaal, B.A., Stein, J., Tamo, M., Murdock, L.L., 2011. Regulatory considerations surrounding the deployment of Bt-expressing cowpea in Africa. Report of the deliberations of an expert panel. GM Crops 2, 211-224.
  13. Jackai, L.E.N., 1981. Relationship between cowpea crop phenology and field infestation by the legume pod borer Maruca testulalis. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 74, 402-408.
  14. Jung, J.K., Seo, B.Y., Cho, J.R., Kwon, Y.H., Kim, G.H., 2009. Occurrence of lepidopteran insect pests and injury aspects in Adzuki bean fields. Kor. J. Appl. Entomol. 48, 29-35.
  15. Jung, J.K., Seo, B.Y., Park, J.H., Moon, J.K., Choi, B.S., Lee, Y.H., 2007. Developmental characteristics of soybean podworm, Matsumuraeses phaseoli (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) on semi-synthetic artificial diets. Kor. J. Appl. Entomol. 46, 393-399.
  16. Kim, J.I., Joo, Y.R., Kwon, M., Kim, G.H., Lee, S.H., 2012. Mutation in ace1 associated with an insecticide resistant population of Plutella xylostella. J. Asia Pac. Entomol. 15, 401-407.
  17. Kim, Y., Lee, J., Kang, S., Han, S., 1998. Age variation in insecticide susceptibility and biochemical changes of beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hubner). J. Asia Pac. Entomol. 1, 109-113.
  18. Kwon, D.H., Choi, B.R., Park, H.M., Lee, S.H., Miyata, T., Clark, J.M., Lee, S.H., 2004. Knockdown resistance allele frequency in field populations of Plutella xylostella in Korea. Pesti. Biochem. Physiol. 80, 21-30.
  19. Lee, S.T., Srinivasan, R., Lo, Y.J., Talekar, N.S., 2007. Identification, characterization and bioassays of Maruca vitrata multiple nucleopolyhedrosis (MaviNPV) against Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae). BioControl 52, 801-819.
  20. Lomax, M.I., Hewett-Emmett, D., Yang, T.L., Grossman, L.I., 1992. Rapid evolution of the human gene for cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89, 5266-5270.
  21. Lu, P.F., Qiao, H.L., Luo, Y.Q., 2013. Female sex pheromone blend and male response of the legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), in two populations of mainland China. Z. Naturforsch C. 68, 419-427.
  22. Margam, V.M., Coates, B.S., Ba, M.N., Sun, W., Binso-Dabire, C.L., Baoua, I., Ishiyaku. M.F., Shukle, J.T., Hellmich. R.L., Covas, F.G., Ramasamy, S., Armstrong, J., Pittendrigh, B.R., Murdock, L.L., 2011. Geographic distribution of phylogenetically-distinct legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae: Crambidae). Mol. Biol. Rep. 38, 893-903.
  23. McPherson, R.M., MacRac, T.C., 2009. Evaluation of transgenic soybean exhibiting high expression of a synthetic Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1A transgene for suppressing lepidopteran population densities and crop injury. J. Econ. Entomol. 102, 1640-1648.
  24. Oghiakhe, S., Jackai, L.E.N., Makanjuola, W.A., 1995. Evaluation of cowpea genotypes for field resistance to the legume pod borer, Maruca testulalis, in Nigeria. Crop Prot. 14, 389-394.
  25. Paek, M., Hwang, J., Jung, K., Kim, T., Kim, M., Lee, Y., Cho, Y., Park, S., Le, H., Ku, D., Jeong J., Kim, K., Choi, D., Shin, E., Hwang, J., Lee, J., Kim, S., Bae, Y., 2010. Checklist of Korean insects. Nature & Ecology, Seoul, Korea.
  26. Periassamy, M., Schafleitner, R., Muthukalingan, K., Ramasamy, S., 2015. Phylogeographical structure in mitochondrial DNA of legume pod borer (Maruca vitrata) population in tropical Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. PLoS One 10, e0124057.
  27. Popelka, J.C., Gollasch, S., Moore, A., Molvig, L., Higgins, T.J.V., 2006. Genetic transformation of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) and stable transmission of the transgenes to progeny. Plant Cell Rep. 25, 304-312.
  28. Ratnasingham, S., Hebert, P.D.N., 2007. BOLD: the barcode of life Data System ( Mol. Ecol. Notes 7, 355-364.
  29. Raymond, M., 1985. Log-probit analysis Basic program for microcomputer. Cah. ORS-TOM. Ser. Ent. med. et Parasitol. 23, 117-121.
  30. Sambrook, J.E., F. Fritsh and T. Maniatis. 1989. Molecular cloning. A laboratory manual, 2nd ed. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, NY.
  31. Schlager, S., Ulrichs, C., Srinivasan, R., Beran, F., Bhanu, K.R.M., Mewis, I., Schreiner, M., 2012. Developing pheromone traps and lures for Maruca vitrata in Taiwan. Gesund. Pflanz. 64, 183-186.
  32. Sharma, H.C., 1998. Bionomics, host plant resistance, and management of the legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata - a review. Crop Prot. 17, 373-386.
  33. Simon, C., Frati, F., Beckenbach, A., Crespi, B., Liu, H., Flook, P., 1994. Evolution, weighting, and phylogenetic utility of mitochondrial gene sequences and a compilation of conserved polymerase chain reaction primers. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 87, 651-701.
  34. Srinivasan, R., 2008. Susceptibility of legume pod borer (LPB), Maruca vitrata to $\delta$-endotoxins of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) in Taiwan. J. Invertebr. Pathol. 97, 79-81.
  35. Tamura, K., Stecher, G., Peterson, D., Filipski, A., Kumar, S., 2013. MEGA6: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis, version 6.0. Mol. Biol. Evol. 30, 2725-2729.

Cited by

  1. Cellular Immune Response of the Legume Pod Borer, Maruca vitrata, and its Suppression by BtPlus to Enhance Bacillus thuringiensis Pathogenicity vol.21, pp.2, 2017,