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Toxicity and Safety Profiles of Methanolic Extract of Pistacia integerrima J. L. Stewart ex Brandis (PI) for Wistar Rats

  • Sharwan, Gotmi (Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Columbia Institute of Pharmacy, Chhattisgarh Swami Vivekanand Technical University) ;
  • Jain, Parag (Department of Pharmacology, SLT Institute of Pharmacology, Guru Ghasidas University) ;
  • Pandey, Ravindra (Department of Natural Products Research, Columbia Institute of Pharmacy, Chhattisgarh Swami Vivekanand Technical University) ;
  • Shukla, Shiv Shankar (Department of Analytical Chemistry, Columbia Institute of Pharmacy, Chhattisgarh Swami Vivekanand Technical University)
  • Received : 2016.06.27
  • Accepted : 2016.07.28
  • Published : 2016.09.30

Abstract

Objectives: The goals of this research were to evaluate acute (single-dose) and sub-acute (repeated-dose) toxicity profiles of methanolic extract of Pistacia integerrima J. L. Stewart ex Brandis (PI) for Wistar rats and to assess the safety profile of PI by observing physiological changes, mortality, changes in body weight, the histopathology of body organs, the hematology and the biochemistry of the animals. Methods: The toxicity profile of PI was evaluated using Wistar rats of both sexes. Animals were divided into four groups: Group 1; control group (normal saline), Group 2; PI-1 (250 mg/kg), Group 3; PI-2 (500 mg/kg), Group 4; PL-3 (1,000 mg/kg). An acute-toxicity study in which animals received a single dose of PI extract (2,000 mg/kg) and were then observed for 14 days for changes in skin, fur, eye color, mucous membrane secretions and excretions, gait, posture, and tonic or clonic movements was performed according to guideline 425 of the Organization of Economic and Corporation Development (OECD). In the repeated-dose toxicity study (OECD - 407) animals received a daily dose of PI extract for 28 days (4 weeks). The parameters observed in this study include body weight, hematology and biochemistry of the animals. Results: In the acute toxicity study, no mortalities or changes in behavior were noted in the animals. The repeated-dose toxicity study was also devoid of any toxicity in the animals during the 28 days of testing with PI extract. The extract did not alter- the body weight, hematology or biochemistry of the animals. The methanolic extract of PI was to be found safe to the no-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL) for the single-dose and repeated-dose toxicity tests in rats. Conclusion: The methanolic extract of PI was devoid of toxicity; hence, it can be used for various ayurvedic preparations and treatments of diseases.

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