공유리더십이 팀직무열의에 미치는 영향: 팀긍정심리자본의 매개효과와 직무특성의 조절효과를 중심으로

Impact of Shared Leadership on Team Work Engagement: Focusing on the Mediating Role of Team Positive Psychological Capital and the Moderating Role of Task Characteristics

  • 유태섭 (경희대학교 국제대학원 국제경영학과) ;
  • 오상진 (서울과학종합대학원 경영학과)
  • 투고 : 2016.07.04
  • 심사 : 2016.07.20
  • 발행 : 2016.09.28


본 연구는 국내 기업의 근무자를 대상으로 팀 수준에서 공유리더십의 효과성을 연구하는데 있어 지금까지 국내에 별로 소개 된 바 없는 팀 변수인 팀긍정심리자본과 팀직무열의와의 관계를 규명하는데 목적이 있다. 이를 위하여 공유리더십이 팀직무열의에 미치는 영향, 공유리더십과 팀직무열의간의 관계에서 팀긍정심리자본(Team PsyCap)의 매개효과 그리고 공유리더십과 팀긍정심리자본과의 관계에서 직무특성의 조절 효과를 검증하였다. 국내 16개 기업 100개 팀의 구성원 421명을 대상으로 연구를 실시하였고, 수집된 자료의 분석과 통계처리를 위하여 SPSS23.0을 사용하였다. 연구 결과, 높은 공유리더십 수준은 팀의 직무열의에 유의한 영향을 미치는 것으로 밝혀졌고 이 과정에서 팀의 긍정심리자본이 매개 역할을 하는 것으로 검증되었다. 이러한 결과는 공유리더십이 팀긍정심리자본을 촉진하고 팀직무열의에 긍정적인 영향을 미치는 주요 변인임을 입증하는 것이다. 그러나 공유리더십과 팀 긍정심리자본에 대한 직무특성의 조절효과는 지지되지 않았다. 마지막으로, 본 연구 결과가 주는 이론적 및 실무적 함의를 논하였으며, 마지막으로 연구의 한계 및 향후 연구방향을 제시하였다.




  1. D. R. Goeltz, "Globalization and hypercompetition: Drivers, linkages, and industry differences," Journal of International Business and Cultural Studies, Vol.8, 2014.
  2. V. LaPort Nicolaides, K. Chen, T. Tomassetti, A. Weis, E. Zaccaro, and J. Cortina, "The shared leadership of teams: A meta-analysis of proximal, distal, and moderating relationship," The Leadership Quarterly, Vol.25, pp.923-94, 2014.
  3. E. Salas, K. C. Stagl, and C. S. Burke, "25 years of team effectiveness in organizations: research themes and emerging needs," International review of industrial and organizational psychology, Vol.19, No.42, pp.47-92, 2004.
  4. S. W. J. Kozlowski and B. S. Bell, "Work groups and teams in organizations: Review update [Electronic version]," Cornell University, School of Industrial and Labor Relations, 2013.
  5. J. Mielonen, "Making sense of shared leadership. A case study of leadership processes and practices without formal leadership structure in the team context," Acta Universitatis Lappeenrantaensis 451, Thesis for the degree of Doctor, 2011.
  6. J. O'Toole, J. Galbraith, and E. Lawler, "When two (or more) heads are better than one: the promise and pitfalls of shared leadership," In Pearce, C. L. and Conger, J. (Eds), "Shared Leadership: Reframing the Hows and Whys of Leadership," London: Sage, pp.250-267, 2003.
  7. J. B. Carson, P. E. Tesluk, and J. A. Marrone, "Shared leadership in team: An investigation of antecedent conditions and performance," Academy of Management Journal, Vol.50, No.5, pp.1217-1234, 2007.
  8. P. Costa, A. M. Passos, and A. B. Bakker, "Team Work Engagement: A model of emergence," Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, Vol.87, pp.414-436, 2014a.
  9. L. I. Glassop, "The organizational benefits of teams," Human Relations, Vol.55, pp.225-249, 2002.
  10. C. M. Youssef and F. Luthans, "Positive psychological capital in the workplace: Where we are and where we need to go," In K. M. Sheldon, T. B. Kashdan and M. F. Steger (Eds.), "Designing positive psychology: Taking stock and moving forward," New York, NY: Oxford University Press, pp.351-364, 2011
  11. R. Clapp-Smith, G. R. Vogelgesang, and J. B. Avey, "Authentic leadership and positive psychological capital: The mediating role of trust at the group level of analysis," Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies, Vol.15, pp.227-240, 2009
  12. S. J. Peterson and Z. Zhang, "Examining the relationships between top management team psychological characteristics, transformational leadership, and business unit performance," In M. A. Carpenter (Ed.). Handbook of top management research, New York: Edward Elgar Publishing, pp.127-149, 2011.
  13. V. Vanno, W. Kaemkate, and S. Wongwanich, "Relationships between academic performance, perceived group psychological capital, and positive psychological capital of Thai undergraduate students," Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, Vol.116, pp.3226-3230, 2014.
  14. V. Vanno, W. Kaemkate, and S. Wongwanich, "Effect of group-level positive psychological capital on group effectiveness of Thai students," Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, Vol.171, pp.1309-1314, 2015.
  15. S. Dawkins, A. Martin, J. Scott, and K. Sanderson, "Advancing conceptualization and measurement of psychological capital as a collective construct," Human Relations, Vol.68, No.6, pp.1-25, 2014.
  16. S. L. Chen, "The relationship of leader psychological capital and follower psychological capital, job engagement and job performance: a multilevel mediating perspective," The International Journal of Human Resource Management, Vol.26, No.18, pp.2349-2365, 2015.
  17. J. Somehagen and V. Johansson, Shared Leadership and its Future Potential - Why do, How to and then What?, Linnaeus University, Master Thesis, 2015.
  18. N. J. Hiller, D. V. Day, and R. J. Vance, "Collective enactment of leadership roles and team effectiveness: A field study," The Leadership Quarterly, Vol.17, No.4, pp.387-397, 2006.
  19. C. Y. Chiu, Investigating the emergence of shared leadership in teams: The roles of team proactivity, internal social context, and leader humility, Graduate School of the University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Ph. D Dissertation, 2014.
  20. J. K. Lee, A study on the Effect of Shared Leadership on Team Effectiveness - The Mediating Effects of Team Efficacy, Team Intrinsic Motivation, and Team Accountability, Kookmin University, Thesis for the degree of Doctor, 2016.
  21. N. M. Wild, Antecedent conditions of shared leadership: An examination of team personality composition, shared leadership and team effectiveness, The University of Tennessee at Chattanooga, Chattanooga, Tennessee, Master Thesis, 2015.
  22. J. E. Mathieu, M. R. Kukenberger, L. D'Innocenzo, and G. Reilly, "Reciprocal Team Cohesion-Performance Relationships, as impacted by Shared Leadership and Members' Competence," Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol.100, No.3, pp.713-734, 2015.
  23. U. S. M. Ullah and D. S. Park, "Shared leadership and team effectiveness: Moderating effects of task interdependence," African Journal of Business Management, Vol.7, No.40, pp.4206-4220, 2013.
  24. K. Boies, E. Lvina, and M. L. Martens, "Shared leadership and team performance in a business strategy simulation," Journal of Personnel Psychology, Vol.9, pp.195-202, 2010.
  25. J. E Hoch, C. L Pearce, and L. Welzel, "Is the most effective leadership shared? The impact of shared leadership, age diversity, and coordination on team performance," Journal of Personnel Psychology, Vol.9, pp.105-116, 2010.
  26. M. S. Fausing, H. Jeppesen, T. S. Jonsson, J. Lewandowski, and M. C. Bligh, "Moderators of shared leadership: Work function and team autonomy," Team Performance Management, Vol.19, No.5, pp.244-262, 2013.
  27. C. Pearce, C. Wassenaar, and C. Manz, "Is shared leadership the key to responsible leadership?," Academy Of Management Perspectives, Vol.28, No.3, pp.275-288, 2014.
  28. 변영실, 백기복, "이슈리더십과 혁신행동 관계에 있어 직무열의의 매개효과," 한국콘텐츠학회논문지, Vol.15, No.9, pp.494-508, 2015.
  29. P. Torrente, M. Salanova, S. Llorens, and W. B. Schaufeli, "From 'I' to 'We': The factorial validity of a team work engagement scale," In J. Neves and S. P. Goncalves(Ed.s). "Occupational health psychology: From burnout to well-being, pp.333-352, 2012a.
  30. P. Torrente, M. Salanova, S. Llorens, and W. B. Schaufeli, "Teams make it work: How team work engagement mediates between social resources and performance in teams," Psicothema, Vol.24, pp.106-112, 2012b.
  31. H. Acosta, M. Salanova, and S. Llorens, "How Organizational Practices Predict Team Work Engagement: The Role of Organizational Trust," Ciencia & Trabajo, pp.7-15, 2012.
  32. P. Costa, A. M. Passos, and A. B. Bakker, "Empirical validation of the team work engagement construct," Journal of Personnel Psychology, Vol.13, pp.34-45, 2014b.
  33. P. Costa, A. M. Passos and A. B. Bakker, "Direct and Contextual Influence of Team Conflict on Team Resources, Team Work Engagement, and Team Performance," Negotiation and Conflict Management Research, Vol.8, pp.211-227, 2015.
  34. M. Salanova, S. Llorens, E. Cifre, I. Martinez, and W. B. Schaufeli, "Perceived collective efficacy, subjective well-being and task performance among electronic work groups: An experimental study," Small Groups Research, Vol.34, pp.43-73, 2003.
  35. W. B. Schaufeli and A. B. Bakker, "Job Demands, Job Resources, and Their Relationship with Burnout and Engagement: A Multi-Sample Study," Journal of Organizational Behavior, Vol.25, pp.293-315, 2004.
  36. W. B. Schaufeli and A. B. Bakker, "The conceptualization and measurement of work engagement: A review. In A. B. Bakker and M. P. Leiter (Eds.). Work engagement: A handbook of essential theory and research," New York, NY: Psychology Press, pp.10-24, 2010.
  37. P. Costa, A. M. Passos, and A. B. Bakker, "Team work engagement: Considering team dynamics for engagement," Lisbon, Portugal: ISCTE-IUL, Business Research Unit (BRU-IUL), 2012.
  38. M. Stiphout, Greater Than the Sum of its Parts: Exploring the Concept of Team Engagement and How It Emerges in the Public Sector, Utrecht University, Erasmus University Rotterdam and Tilburg University, Master Thesis, 2014.
  39. M. Salanova, S. Llorens, and W. B. Schaufeli, "Yes, I can, I feel good, and I just do it! On gain cycles and spirals of efficacy beliefs, affect and engagement," Applied Psychology: An International Review, Vol.60, pp.255-285, 2011.
  40. J. K. Harter, F. L. Schmidt, and T. L. Hayes, "Business-Unit-Level Relationship Between Employee Satisfaction, Employee Engagement, and Business Outcomes: A Meta-Analysis," Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol.87, No.2, pp.268-279, 2002.
  41. M. Salanova, S. Agut, and J. M. Peiro, "Linking organizational resources and work engagement to employee performance and customer loyalty: The mediation of service climate," Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol.90, pp.1217-1227, 2005.
  42. S. Dawkins, A. Martin, J. Scott, and K. Sanderson, "Advancing conceptualization and measurement of psychological capital as a collective construct," Human Relations, pp.1-25, 2015.
  43. F. Walumbwa, F. Luthans, J. B. Avey, and A. Oke, "Authentically leading groups: The mediating role of collective psychological capital and trust," Journal of Organizational Behavior, Vol.32, pp.4-24, 2011
  44. E. Heled A. Somech, and L. Waters, "Psychological capital as a team phenomenon: Mediating the relationship between learning climate and outcomes at the individual and team levels," The Journal of Positive Psychology, Vol.11, No.3, pp.303-314, 2016.
  45. B. J. West, J. L. Patera, and M. K. Carsten, "Team level positivity: Investigating positive psychological capacities and team level outcomes," Journal of Organizational Behavior, Vol.30, pp.249-267, 2009.
  46. A. Bandura and D. Cervone, "Differential engagement of selfreactive influences in cognitive motivation," Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, Vol.38, pp.92-113, 1986.
  47. J. R. Meindl, "The romance of leadership as a follower centric theory: A social constructionist approach," Leadership Quarterly, Vol.6, pp.329-341, 1995.
  48. E. Memili, H. B. D. Welsh, and E. Kaciak, "Organizational Psychological Capital of Family Franchise Firms Through the Lens of the Leader-Member Exchange Theory," Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, Vol.21, No.2, pp.200-209, 2014.
  49. L. Goncalve, "How leader's humility predict team creativity: An empirical study," IMC Proceeding of the International Management Conference, L. Hough (Eds.), Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology (2nd ed.), Vol.3, pp.269-313, 2015.
  50. D. Xanthopoulou, A. B. Bakker, E. Demerouti, and W. B. Schaufeli, The role of personal resources in the job demands-resources model, International Journal of Stress Management, Vol.14, No.2, pp.121-141, 2007.
  51. J. C. Rico and V. Leeuwen, The effect of vertical versus shared leadership on team performance, group development and engagement, Twente University, 2015.
  52. K. I. M. Zeier, Developing Scientists Into Leaders: The Role of Shared Leadership Development and Engagement in an R&D Organization Undergoing Change, Victoria University of Wellington, Master Thesis, 2014.
  53. K. J. Lovelace, C. C. Manz, and J. C. Alves, "Work stress and leadership development: The role of self-leadership, shared leadership, physical fitness and flow in managing demands and increasing job contro," Human Resource Management Review, Vol.17, pp.374-387, 2007.
  54. A. B. Bakker, E. Demerouti, and A. I. Sanz-Vergel, "Burnout and work engagement: The JD-R approach," Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior, Vol.1, pp.389-411, 2014.
  55. E. Demerouti, A. B. Bakker, F. Nachreiner, and W. B. Schaufeli, "The job demands resources model of burnout," Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol.86, pp.499-512, 2001.
  56. M. Tims, A. B. Bakker, and D. Xanthopoulou, "Do transformational leaders enhance their followers' daily work engagement?," The Leadership Quarterly, Vol.22, No.1, pp.121-131, 2011.
  57. C. L. Pearce, Y. Yoo, and M. Alavi, "Leadership, social work and virtual teams: The relative influence of vertical vs. shared leadership in the nonprofit sector, In R. E. Riggio and S. Smith-Orr (Eds.), Improving leadership in nonprofit organizations," SanFrancisco: Jossey-Bass. pp.180-203, 2004.
  58. A. J. Ramthun, Shared Leadership in Dangerous Environments: Testing a Model for Military Teams Using Mixed Methods Research, The Graduate College at the University of Nebraska, Thesis for the degree of Doctor, 2013.
  59. A. B. Avey, "The Left Side of Psychological Capital: New Evidence on the Antecedents of Psy Cap," Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, Vol.21, No.2. pp.141-149, 2014.
  60. A. F. McKenny, J. C. Short, and G. T. Payne, "Using computer-aided text analysis to elevate constructs: An illustration using psychological capital," Organizational Research Methods, Vol.16, No.1, pp.152-184, 2013.
  61. L. Li, H. Shu, W. Lie, S. Guoyuan, and M. Lei, "Positive resources for combating depressive symptoms among Chinese male correctional officers: perceived organizational support and psychological capital," BMC Psychiatry, Vol.13, No.1, pp.1-9, 2013.
  62. A. B. Bakker and E. Demerouti, "Towards a model of work engagement," Career Development International, Vol.13, No.3 pp.209-223, 2008.
  63. F. Luthans, S. M. Norman, B. J. Avolio, and J. B. Avey, "The mediating role of psychological capital in the supportive organizational climate*employee performance relationship," Journal of Organizational Behavior, Vol.29, pp.219-238, 2008.
  64. A. Newman, D. Ucbasaran, F Zhu, and G. Hirst, "Psychological capital: A review and synthesis," Journal of Organizational Behavior, Vol.35(S1), pp.120-138, 2014.
  65. J. E. Hoch and J. H. Dulebohn, "Shared leadership in enterprise resource planning and human resource management system implementation," Human Resource Management Review, Vol.23, pp.114-125, 2013.
  66. H. J. Bang, The effects of shared leadership and psychological safety climate on team performance, team commitment, and changeoriented organizational citizenship behavior- the role of team reflexivity as a mediator, Sungkyunkwan University, Thesis for the degree of Doctor, 2013.
  67. M. A. Campion, G. J. Medsker, and A. C. Higgs, "Relations between work group characteristics and effectiveness: Implications for designing effective work groups," Personnel Psychology, Vol.46, pp.823-850, 1993.
  68. C. L. Pearce and H. P. Sims, "Vertical versus shared leadership as predictors of the effectiveness of change management teams: An examination of aversive, directive, transactional, transformational, and empowering leader behaviors," Group Dynamics, Theory, Research, and Practice, Vol.6, No.2, pp.172-197, 2002.