- Volume 20 Issue 3
DOI QR Code
Exposure Assessment of Apple Orchard Workers to the Insecticide Imidacloprid Using Whole Body Dosimetry During Mixing/Loading and Application
전신복장법을 이용한 농약 조제 및 살포 과정 중 살충제 Imidacloprid에 대한 사과 과수원 농작업자의 노출 평가
- Lee, Jae Yun (Department of Environmental and Biological Chemistry, College of Agriculture, Life and Environment Sciences, Chungbuk National University) ;
- Noh, Hyun Ho (Department of Environmental and Biological Chemistry, College of Agriculture, Life and Environment Sciences, Chungbuk National University) ;
- Park, Hyo Kyoung (Department of Environmental and Biological Chemistry, College of Agriculture, Life and Environment Sciences, Chungbuk National University) ;
- Jeong, Hye Rim (Department of Environmental and Biological Chemistry, College of Agriculture, Life and Environment Sciences, Chungbuk National University) ;
- Jin, Me Jee (Department of Environmental and Biological Chemistry, College of Agriculture, Life and Environment Sciences, Chungbuk National University) ;
- Park, Kyung-Hun (Department of Agro-Food Safety, National Academy of Agricultural Science) ;
- Kim, Jeong-Han (Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, Seoul National University) ;
- Kyung, Kee Sung (Department of Environmental and Biological Chemistry, College of Agriculture, Life and Environment Sciences, Chungbuk National University)
- 이재윤 (충북대학교 농업생명환경대학 환경생명화학과) ;
- 노현호 (충북대학교 농업생명환경대학 환경생명화학과) ;
- 박효경 (충북대학교 농업생명환경대학 환경생명화학과) ;
- 정혜림 (충북대학교 농업생명환경대학 환경생명화학과) ;
- 진미지 (충북대학교 농업생명환경대학 환경생명화학과) ;
- 박경훈 (국립농업과학원 농산물안전성부) ;
- 김정한 (서울대학교 농생명공학부) ;
- 경기성 (충북대학교 농업생명환경대학 환경생명화학과)
- Received : 2016.09.28
- Accepted : 2016.09.30
- Published : 2016.09.30
To evaluate exposure characteristics of the insecticide imidacloprid to apple orchard workers during treatment on orchard fields and evaluate its potential risk using a whole body dosimetry (WBD) method, 1,000-time diluted acephate+imidacloprid 25(20+5)% solutions were sprayed on 10 apple orchard fields in Cheongju with a speed sprayer at a rate of 3,000 L/ha/person, after put on clothes such as inner/outer clothes, personal air pump with a IOM sampler, nitrile glove and mask. Exposure test included mixing, loading and application steps. The test pesticide imidacloprid residues in the collected samples were analyzed with a HPLC-DAD. Recoveries ranged from 81.5 to 108.6% for analytical method validation and from 73.8 to 86.7% for field recovery. Total exposed amounts to mixer/loader and applicator were found to be 0.0014-0.0279% of total applied active ingredient of imidacloprid. Glove exposure of both mixer/loader and applicator was higher than the other parts. Margins of safety of mixer/loader and applicator were calculated to be 97-355 and 46-196, respectively, indicating that exposure risk of imidacloprid to apple orchard workers by spraying with a speed sprayer was very low.
Supported by : 농촌진흥청
- An, X., X. Ji, J. Jiang, Y. Wang, C. Wu and X. Zhao (2015) Potential dermal exposure and risk assessment for applicators of chlorothalonil and chlorpyrifos in cucumber greenhouses in China, Human and Ecological Risk Assessment, Hum. Ecol. Risk Assess. 21(4):972-985. https://doi.org/10.1080/10807039.2014.949165
- Berenstein, G. A., E. A. Hughes, H. March, G. Rojic, A. Zalts and J. M. Montserrat (2014) Pesticide potential dermal exposure during the manipulation of concentrated mixtures at small horticultural and floricultural production units in Argentina: The formulation effect, Science of the Total Environment Sci. Total Environ. 472:509-516. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.11.071
- Blanco-Munoz, J., M. Lacasana, L. Lopez-Flores, M. Rodriguez-Barranco, B. Gonzalez-Alzaga, S. Bassol and C. Aguilar-Garduno (2016) Association between organochlorine pesticide exposure and thyroid hormones in floriculture workers, Environ. Research 150:357-363. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2016.05.054
- Cao, L., B. Chen, L. Zheng, D. Wang, F. Liu and Q, Huang (2014) Assessment of potential dermal and inhalation exposure of workers to the insecticide imidacloprid using whole-body dosimetry in China, J. Environ. Sci. 27:139-146.
- Choi, H. and J. H. Kim (2014) Risk assessment of agricultural worker's exposure to fungicide thiophanate-methyl during treatment in green pepper, cucumber and apple fields, J. Appl. Biol. Chem. 57(1):73-81. https://doi.org/10.3839/jabc.2014.012
- Choi, H., J. K. Moon and J. H. Kim (2013) Assessment of the exposure of workers to the insecticide imidacloprid during application on various field crops by a hand-held power sprayer, J. Agric. Food Chem. 61:10642-10648. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf403169t
- Choi, H., J. K. Moon, K. H. Liu, H. W. Park, Y. B. Ihm, B. S. Park and J. H. Kim (2006) Risk assessment of human exposure to cypermethrin during treatment of mandarin fields, Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 50:437-442. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00244-005-1050-3
- Fenske, R. A. (1993) Dermal exposure assessment techniques, Ann. Occup. Hyg. 37(6):687-706. https://doi.org/10.1093/annhyg/37.6.687
- Flores, A. P., G. A. Berenstein, E. A. Hughes, A. Zalts and J. M. Montserrat (2011) Pesticide risk assessment in flower greenhouses in Argentina: The importance of manipulating concentrated products, J. Hazard. Mater. 189(1):222-228. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2011.02.028
- Fustinoni, S., R. Mercadante, E. Polledri, F. M. Rubino, S. Mandic-Rajcevic, G. Vianello and A. Moretto (2014) Biological monitoring of exposure to tebuconazole in winegrowers, J. Expo. Sci. Environ. Epidemiol. 24(6):643-649. https://doi.org/10.1038/jes.2014.14
- Geer, L. A., N. Cardello, M. J. Dellarco, T. J. Leighton, R. P. Zendzian, J. D. Roberts and T. J. Buckley (2004) Comparative analysis of passive dosimetry and biomonitoring for assessing chlorpyrifos exposure in pesticide workers, Ann. Occup. Hyg. 48(8):683-685. https://doi.org/10.1093/annhyg/meh056
- Hughes, E. A., A. Zalts, J. J. Ojeda, A. P. Flores, R. C. Glass and J. M. Montserrat (2006) Analytical method for assessing potential dermal exposure to captan, using whole body dosimetry, in small vegetable production units in Argentina. Pest. Manag. Sci. 62:811-818. https://doi.org/10.1002/ps.1232
- Hong, S. S., J. B. Lee, Y. K. Park, J. S. Shin, G. J. Im and G. H. Ryu (2007) The proposal for pesticide exposure estimation of Korean orchard farmer, Kor. J. Pestic. Sci. 11(4):281-288.
- Kim, E. H., H. R. Lee, H. Choi, J. K. Moon, S. S. Hong, M. H. Jeong, K. H. Park, H. M. Lee and J. H. Kim (2011) Methodology for quantitative monitoring of agricultural worker exposure to pesticides, Kor. J. Pestic. Sci. 15(4):507-528.
- Kim, E. H., J. K. Moon, H. Choi, S. M. Hong, D. H. Lee, H. M. Lee and J. H. Kim (2012a) Exposure and risk assessment of insecticide methomyl for applicator during treatment on apple orchard, J. Korean Soc. Biol. Chem. 55:95-100. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13765-012-0016-1
- Kim, E. H., Y. J. Hwang, S. H. Kim, H. R. Lee, S. S. Hong, K. H. Park and J. H. Kim (2012b) Operator exposure to indoxacarb wettable powder and water dispersible granule during mixing/loading and risk assessment, Kor. J. Pestic. Sci. 16(4):343-349. https://doi.org/10.7585/kjps.2012.16.4.343
- Kim, E. H., J. H. Lee, J. H. Sung., J. H. Lee, Y. H. Shin and J. H. Kim (2014) Exposure and risk assessment for operator exposure to insecticide acetamiprid during water melon cultivation in greenhouse using whole body dosimetry, Kor. J. Pestic. Sci. 18(4):247-257. https://doi.org/10.7585/kjps.2014.18.4.247
- Machado-Neto, J. G. (2001) Determination of safe work time and exposure control need for pesticide applicators. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 67:20-26. https://doi.org/10.1007/s001280086
- Machado-Neto, J. G. (2015). Safety Measures for handlers/workers against herbicide intoxication risk, Herbicides, physiology of action, and safety, Dr. Andrew P. Eds; InTech, pp.299-322.
- National Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Pesticide Safety Information Service, http://www.naas.go.kr/pesticide/index.do
- OECD (1997) Guidance document for the conduct of studies of occupational exposure to pesticides during agricultural application, OECD environmental health and safety publications, Series on Testing and Assessment No. 9 : OECD/GD(97) Paris.
- Oliveira, M. L. and J. G. Machado-Neto (2003), Use of manganese as tracer in the determination of respiratory exposure and relative importance of exposure routes in the safety of pesticide applicators in citrus orchards, Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 70(3):415-421. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-003-0002-8
- Predictive Operator Exposure Model (POEM) (1992) A user guide, Pesticide Safety Directorate, UK.
- Ramos, L. M., G. A. Quererjeta, A. P. Flores, E. A. Hughes, A. Zalts and J. M. Mentserrat (2010) Potential dermal exposure in greenhouses for manual sprayers: Analysis of the mix/ load, application and re-entry stages, Sci. Total Environ. 408(19):4062-4068. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2010.05.020
- Ross, J., G. Chester, J. Driver, C. Lunchick, L. Holden, L. Rosenheck and D. Barnekow (2008) Comparative evaluation of absorbed dose estimates derived from passive dosimetry measurements to those derived from biological monitoring: Validation of exposure monitoring methodologies, J. Expo. Sci. Environ. Epidemiol. 18:211-230. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.jes.7500591
- Severn, D. J. (1984) Use of exposure data for risk assessment, Determination and assessment of pesticide exposure, Siewierski, M. Eds; Elsevier: New York, pp.13-19.
- You, A. S., S. S. Hong, J. B. Lee, S. D. Lee and Y. B. Ihm (2014) Application of oral absorption in establishment of AOEL for pesticides and occupational risk assessment for farm worker, Kor. J. Pestic. Sci. 18(4):342-349. https://doi.org/10.7585/kjps.2014.18.4.342
- Comparison of Citrus Leaves Adhesion and Operator Exposure of Fungicide Dithianon by Different Spraying System vol.21, pp.2, 2017, https://doi.org/10.7585/kjps.2017.21.2.131