Dynamic Mechanical and Morphological Properties of Natural Rubber Vulcanizates Containing Fillers

  • Lee, Hae Gil (Nexen Corp. Tech Center, Department of Polymer Engineering, Pukyong National University) ;
  • Park, Chan Young (Nexen Corp. Tech Center, Department of Polymer Engineering, Pukyong National University)
  • Received : 2016.08.22
  • Accepted : 2016.09.06
  • Published : 2016.09.30


In order to examine correlation between silane coupling agent and activator which affects the physical properties of silica filled natural rubber compound, such as heat buildup, rebound property, dynamic mechanical and morphological properties were measured. With incorporation of silane coupling agent, $tan{\delta}$ at $0^{\circ}C$ was increased and at $60^{\circ}C$ was decreased, which resulted in improving of wet grip and rolling resistance. When silane coupling agent which is corresponding to 8~10% of silica was used, most favorable heat build up and $tan{\delta}$ was obtained. And also when activator was used, dispersibility of silica was improved as a result of reduction of reaggregation of silica.


  1. S. J. Park and K. S. Cho, "Filler-Elastomer Interactions: Influence of Silane Coupling Agent on Crosslink Density and Thermal Stability of Silica/Rubber Composites", J. Colloid & Interface Sci., 267, 86 (2003).
  2. Proposal for a "Directive of the European Parliament and the Council on Labelling of Tyres with Respect to Fuel Effiency and Other Essential Parameters" [SEC(2008)2860] Brussels, COM (2008) 779 final 2008/0221 (COD) (2008).
  3. U. Goerl, A. Hunsche, A. Mueller, and H. G. Koban, "Investigations into the Silica/Silane Reaction System", Rubber Chem. Technol., 70, 608 (1997).
  4. Y. Li, M. J. Wang, T. Zhang, F. Zhang, and X. Fu, "Study on Dispersion Morphology of Silica in Rubber", Rubber Chem. Technol., 67, 693 (1994).
  5. H. W. Walter, O. H. John, E. R. Larry, and H. Jeffrey, "Organic Polymer-Surface Modified Precipitated Silica", J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 55, 1627 (1995).
  6. S. Indra, H. Ismail, and A. R. Azura, "The Comparison of Alkanolamide and Silane Coupling Agent on the Properties of Silica-Filled Natural Rubber (SMR-L) Compounds", Polym. Testing, 40, 24 (2014).
  7. M. J. Wang, "Effect of Polymer-Filler and Filler-Filler Interactions on Dynamic Properties of Filled Vulcanizates", Rubber Chem. Technol., 71(3), 520 (1998).
  8. H. Ismail, S. Shuhelmy, and M. R. Edyham, "The Effects of a Silane Coupling Agent on Curing Characteristics and Mechanical Properties of Bamboo Fibre Filled Natural Rubber Composites", Eur. Polym. J., 38(1), 39 (2002).
  9. S. S. Choi, "Influence of Storage Time and Temperature and Silane Coupling Agent on Bound Rubber Formation in Filled Styrene-Butadiene Rubber Compounds", Polym. Testing, 21, 201 (2002).
  10. J. W. Brinke, S. C. Debnath, L. A. Reuvekamp, and J. W. Noordermeer, "Mechanistic Aspects of the Role of Coupling Agents in Silica-Rubber Composites", Compos. Sci. & Technol., 63, 1165 (2003).
  11. B. T. Poh and C. C. Ng, "Effect of Silane Coupling Agent on the Mooney Scorch Time of Silica-Filled Natural Rubber Compound", Eur. Polym. J., 34(7), 975 (1998).
  12. Y. Xie, A. S. Callum, Z. Xiao, H. Militz, and M. Carsten, "Silane Coupling Agents used for Natural Fiber/Polymer Composites", Composites : Part A, 41, 806 (2010).
  13. A. S. Hashim, B. Azahari, and Y. Ikeda, "The Effect of Bis(3-tri-ethoxysilylpropyl) Tetrasulfide on Silica Reinforcement of Styrene-Buta-Diene Rubber", Rubber Chem. Technol., 71(2), 289 (1998).
  14. P. Ghosh, B. Chattopadhyay, and A. K. Sen, "Thermal and Oxidative Degradation of PE-EPDM Blends Vulcanized Differently using Sulfur Accelerator Systems", Eur. Polym. J., 32(8), 1015 (1996).
  15. S. Wolff and M. J. Wang, "Filler-Elastomer Interactions. Part IV. The Effect of the Surface Energies of Fillers on Elastomer Reinforcement", Rubber Chem. Technol., 65, 329 (1992).
  16. S. S. Choi, "Improvement of Properties of Silica-Filled Natural Rubber Compounds using Polychloroprene", J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 83, 2609 (2002).
  17. Y. C. Ou, Z. Z. Yu, A. Vidal, and J. B. Donnet, "Effects of Alkylation of Silica Filler on Rubber Reinforcement", Rubber Chem. Technol., 67, 834 (1994).
  18. K. H. Kuoa, W. Y. Chiua, and K. H. Hsieha, "Synthesis of UV-Curable Silane-Coupling Agent as an Adhesion Promoter", Mater. Chem. & Phys., 113, 941 (2009).
  19. S. Oui, C. Sirisinha, U. Thepsuwan, and K. Hatthapanit, "Roles of Silane Coupling Agents on Properties of Silica-Filled Polychloroprene", Eur. Polym. J., 42, 479 (2006).
  20. C. Kaynak, C. Celikbilek, and G. Akovali, "Use of Silane Coupling Agents to Improve Epoxy-Rubber Interface", Eur. Polym. J., 39, 1125 (2003).
  21. J. B. Donnet and A. Voet, "Carbon Black, Physics, Chemistry, and Elastomer Reinforcement", Marcel Dekker, New York (1976).