• Published : 2016.12.15


The initial phase of the Mongol invasion resulted in the establishment of relative political stability in the vast expanses of Eurasia, which came under the control of a single political entity - the Mongol realm. This contributed to a fairly rapid restoration of the commercial links and trade routes between the East and the West. During this period, Chinese silk again became available in large quantities in the Western markets. At the same time, the beginning of silk production and manufacturing of silk fabrics in Italy and the fashion flash for these goods in Western countries affected trade between Europe and the Muslim world. The centers of silk production in the Ilkhanid Empire were some provinces of Azerbaijan and Persia, where from it was exported in large numbers along the trade routes of Anatolia and Syria to the Mediterranean ports and further to the west. There are numerous testimonies of European travelers, and Muslim authors related the international silk trade in 13th-15th centuries, ie in the era from the Mongol Ilkhanid Empire till the reign of the Turkman Aqqoyunlu dynasty. One of the most informative documentary sources on this issue are the legislative codes (kanuname) of sultan Uzun Hasan from the Aqqoyunlu dynasty regarding the eastern provinces of the Asia Minor. This article presents and analyzes the information from these documents concerning the whole range of goods related to silk and silk fabrics trade in the period under the consideration.


  1. A Narrative of Italian travels in Persia, in fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. Translated and edited by Charles Grey. London: Printed for Hakluyt Society, 1873
  2. Abu'l-Kasim Ibn Haukal. Kitab al-masalik va-l-mamalik. Edited by M.J. de Goeje. Leiden: Brill, 1873
  3. A'jaib ad-dunya. Persian text and Russian translation by L.P.Smimova. Moscow: Nauka. Izdatel'skaya firma Vostochnaya literatura, 1993
  4. A.A.Alizade. Socialno-ekonomicheskaya i politicheskaya istoriya Azerbaijana 13-14 vv. Baku:2012
  5. N.Alkan. 15 ve 16 yuzyillarda han ipek Yolu'nda kervanlar. In I.U. Fen-Edebiyat Fakultesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi. Yil: 7, Sayi: 11, 2006/2, pp. 141-157
  6. A.Aytac. Osmanli donemi'nde Bursa ipekciligi, dokumaclhk ve bazl arsiv belgeleri. In Tarihin Pesinde - Uluslararasl Tarih ve Sosyal Arastlrmalar Dergisi. Sayi: 13, 2015, pp. 1-11
  7. O.L.Barkan. XV-XVI asirlarda Osmanli Imparatorlugu'nda zirai ekonominin hukuki ve mali esaslari. Birinci cilt. Kanunlar. Istanbul: 1945
  8. V.V.Bartol'd. Persidskaya nadpis' na stene Aniyskoy mecheti Manuche. In Sochineniya. T. 4. Moscow: Nauka, 1966, pp. 313-339
  9. Bondage and Travels of Johann Schiltberger, a Native of Bavaria, in Europe, Asia, and Africa, 1396-1427. Edited by Philip Brunn. New York: Cambridge University Press 2010
  10. F.Dalsar. Turk Sanayi ve Ticaret Tarihinde Bursa'da ipekcilik. Istanbul: Istanbul Universitesi Yaymlan, 1960
  11. J.Day. The Levant Trade in the Middle Ages. In The Economic History of Byzantium: From the Seventh through the Fifteenth Century. Angeliki E. Laiou, Editor-in-Chief. Volume 2. Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection. Washington, D.C. 2002
  12. Hafiz Abm. Zeyl-e lameat-Tawarikh-e Rashidi. Be-ehtemam-e Khanbaba Bayani. Tehran: Entesharat-e Encumen-e Asar-e Melli, 1349
  13. Histoire des Seldjoucides d'Asie Mineure d'apres l'arbege du Seldjouknameh d'Ibn-Bibi. Texte Persan. Publie d'apres le Ms. de Paris par M.Th. Houtsma. Leiden: E.J.Brill. 1902,p.202
  14. H.Inalcik. Bursa. In Turkiye Diyanet Valifi Islam Ansiklopedisi. TDV, 1992, 6. c., pp. 445-449
  15. H.Inalcik. Bursa and the Commerce ofthe Levant. In Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient, Vol. 3, No. 2 (Aug., 1960), pp. 131-147
  16. H.Inalclk. Osmanh Imparatorlugu'nun ekonomik ve sosyal tarihi. Cilt 1. 1300-1600. Istanbul: 2000
  17. S.P.Karpov. Ital'ianskiye morskiye respubliki i Yuzhnoye Prichemomor'ye v XIII-XV vv.:problem torgovli. Moscow: Izdatel'stvo MGU, 1990
  18. I.Kivrim, S.Elmacl. Osmanh doneminde Amasya'da ipekcilik. In Turkish Studies (International Periodical for the Languages, Literature and History of Turkish or Turkic). Volume 6/4, Fall, 2011, p.715-728
  19. Lubb al-Tavarikh by Yahya b. 'Abd al-LatifQazvini (948 A.H.). Edited by M.Hashem Mohaddeth. Tehran: Society for Appreciation of Cultural Works and Dignitaries, 2007
  20. Minorsky V. The Aqqoyunlu and Land Reforms (Turkmenica, 11). In Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, Vol. 17, No. 3, 1955, pp. 449-46
  21. Narrative of the Embassy of Ruy Gonzalez de Clavijo to the court of Timour, at Samarcand, AD 1403-6. Translated by Clements R. Markham, F.R.G.S. London: Printed for the Hakluyt Society, 1859
  22. Nuzhat al-Qulub. Composed by Hamd-Allah Mustawfi of Qazvin in 740 (1340). Edited by: Dr. S.M.Dabir Siaghi. Qazvin: Hadis-e-Emroz, 2000
  23. S.M.Onullahi. XIII-XVII gsrlgrdg Tebriz seherinin tarixi. BakI: "Elm" nesriyyati, 1982
  24. I.P.Petrushevskiy. Gosudarstva Azerbaijana v XV veke. In Sbornik statey po istorii Azerbaijana. Vipusk I. Baku, 1949, p. 195
  25. R.Yu.Pochekaev. Tamgha and the struggle against it: on the history of medieval Turkic-Mongol taxation system. In Golden Horde Review. # 4(6), 2014, pp. 77-95
  26. Tadhkirat al-Muluk. A Manual of Safavid Administration. Translated and explained by V. Minorsky. London: 1943
  27. The Journey of William of Rubruck to eastern parts of the world, 1253-55, as narrated by himself: with two accounts of the earlier journey of John of Pian de Carpine. Translated from Latin and edited with an introductory notice, by W.W.Rockhill. London: Bedford Press for the Hakluyt Society, 1900
  28. The Travels of Marco Polo.By Hugh Murray, F.R.S.E. Third edition. Edinburgh: Oliver & Boyd, Tweeddale Court, 1845
  29. The Travels of Sir John Mandeville. The version of Cot on Manuscript in modem spelling. London: Macmillan Co. Limited. New York: Macmillan Company. 1900
  30. Travels to Tana and Persia by Josafa Barbaro and Ambrogio Contarini.A Narrative of Italian Travels in Persia in the 15th and 16th Centuries.Translated from the Italian by William Thomas and by S.A.Roy. London: Hakluyt Society, 1873
  31. O.Turan. Selcuklular Tarihi ve Turk-islam Medeniyyeti. 6 Baski. Istanbul: Bogazici yayinlari, 1997
  32. S.N.Virani. The Ismailis in the Middle Ages: A History of Survival, a Search for Salvation. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007
  33. A.A.Yanar, M.Arli. Kanunname-i Ihtisab-i Bursa'nin dokuma kumaslar ve giysiler acisindan degerlendirilmesi. In Gazi Universitesi Endustriyel Sanatlar Egitim Fakultesi Dergisi. Sayi: 28, 2012, pp.60-68