Efficient Beam-Training Technique for Millimeter-Wave Cellular Communications

  • Ku, Bon Woo (Department of Electrical Engineering, Chung-Ang University) ;
  • Han, Dae Gen (Department of Electrical Engineering, Chung-Ang University) ;
  • Cho, Yong Soo (Department of Electrical Engineering, Chung-Ang University)
  • Received : 2014.11.07
  • Accepted : 2015.08.12
  • Published : 2016.02.01


In this paper, a beam ID preamble (BIDP) technique, where a beam ID is transmitted in the physical layer, is proposed for efficient beam training in millimeter-wave cellular communication systems. To facilitate beam ID detection in a multicell environment with multiple beams, a BIDP is designed such that a beam ID is mapped onto a Zadoff-Chu sequence in association with its cell ID. By analyzing the correlation property of the BIDP, it is shown that multiple beams can be transmitted simultaneously with the proposed technique with minimal interbeam interference in a multicell environment, where beams have different time delays due to propagation delay or multipath channel delay. Through simulation with a spatial channel model, it is shown that the best beam pairs can be found with a significantly reduced processing time of beam training in the proposed technique.


Supported by : IITP (Institute for Information & communications Technology Promotion)


  1. S. Rangan, T.S. Rappaport, and E. Erkip, "Millimeter-Wave Cellular Wireless Networks: Potentials and Challenges," Proc. IEEE, vol. 102, no. 3, Mar. 2014. pp. 366-385.
  2. T.S. Rappaport et al., "Millimeter Wave Mobile Communications for 5G Cellular: It Will Work!," IEEE Access, vol. 1, 2013, pp. 335-349.
  3. T.S. Rappaport et al., "Broadband Millimeter-Wave Propagation Measurements and Models Using Adaptive-Beam Antennas for Outdoor Urban Cellular Communications," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., vol. 61, no. 4, Apr. 2013, pp. 1850-1859.
  4. M.R. Akdeniz et al., "Millimeter Wave Channel Modeling and Cellular Capacity Evaluation," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 32, no. 6, June 2014, pp. 1164-1179.
  5. Z. Muhi-Eldeen, L.P. Ivrissimtzis, and M. Al-Nuaimi, "Modeling and Measurements of Millimeter Wavelength Propagation in Urban Environments, IET Microw. Antennas Propag., vol. 4, no. 9, Sept. 2010, pp. 1300-1309.
  6. B. Li et al., "Efficient Beamforming Training for 60-GHz Millimeter-wave Communications: A Novel Numerical Optimization Framework," IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., vol. 63, no. 2, Feb. 2014, pp. 703-717.
  7. IEEE 802.11ad Standard, Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Contr. (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specification, Oct. 2012.
  8. Y. Shen, T. Luo, and Z. Moe, "Neighboring Cell Search for LTE Systems," IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun., vol. 11, no. 3, Mar. 2012, pp. 908-919.
  9. Y.H. Ko et al., "2-D DoA Estimation with Cell Searching for a Mobile Relay Station with Uniform Circular Array," IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 58, no. 10, Oct. 2010, pp. 2805-2809.
  10. S. Beyme and C. Leung, "Efficient Computation of DFT of Zadoff-Chu Sequences," Electron. Lett., vol. 45, no. 9, Apr. 2009, pp. 461-463.
  11. 3GPP TR 25.996, "Spatial Channel Model for Multiple Input Multiple Output Simulations," Tech. Rep., Release 11, Sept. 2012.
  12. M. Jiang et al., "3D Channel Model Extensions and Characteristics Study for Future Wireless System," IEEE Int. Symp. Pers. Indoor Mobile Radio Commun., London, UK, Sept. 8-11, 2013, pp 41-46.
  13. 3GPP TR 36.873 v1.2.0, "Study on 3D Channel Model for LTE," Tech. Rep., Release 12, 2013.
  14. S. Sesia, I. Toufik, and M. Baker, "LTE - The UMTS Long Term Evolution: From Theory to Practice," Chichester, UK: John Wiley and Sons, 2012, pp. 151-163.
  15. B.C. Berndt, R.J. Evans, and K.S. Williams, "Gauss and Jacobi Sums," New York, USA: John Wiley and Sons, 1998, pp. 15-26.
  16. Z. Pi and F. Khan, "An Introduction to Millimeter-Wave Mobile Broadband Systems," IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 49, no. 6, June 2011, pp. 101-107.
  17. M. Cudak et al., "Moving towards mmWave-Based Beyond-4G (B-4G) Technology," IEEE Veh. Technol. Conf., Dresden, Germany, June 2-5, 2013, pp 1-5.
  18. I. Sarris and A.R. Nix, "Ricean K-Factor Measurements in a Home and an Office Environment in the 60 GHz Band," Mobile Wireless Commun. Summit, Budapest, Hungary, July 1-5, 2007, pp. 1-5.
  19. Q. Li et al., "Anchor-Booster Based Heterogeneous Networks with mmWave Capable Booster Cells," IEEE Globecom Workshop, Atlanta, GA, USA, Dec. 9-13, 2013, pp. 93-98.
  20. B. Li et al., "On the Efficient Beam-Forming Training for 60 GHz Wireless Personal Area Networks," IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun., vol. 12, no. 2, Feb. 2013, pp. 504-515.