Evaluation of measurement uncertainty for quantitative determination of chlorite and chlorate in fresh-cut vegetables using ion chromatography

  • Jung, Sungjin ;
  • Kim, Dasom ;
  • Lee, Gunyoung ;
  • Yun, Sang Soon ;
  • Lim, Ho Soo ;
  • Jung, Young Rim ;
  • Kim, Hekap
  • Received : 2017.07.13
  • Accepted : 2017.09.08
  • Published : 2017.12.31


This study aimed to evaluate the measurement uncertainty for the quantitative determination of chlorite and chlorate in ready-to-eat fresh-cut vegetables using ion chromatography with a hydroxide-selective column. One gram of the homogenized sample in deionized water was sonicated and centrifuged at 8,500 rpm. The supernatant was purified by passing it through a Sep-Pak tC18 cartridge, followed by chromatographic determination using a Dionex IonPac AS27 column. The linearity of the calibration curves, recovery, repeatability, and reproducibility of the method were satisfactory. The method detection limit was estimated to be approximately 0.5 mg/kg. Each uncertainty component was evaluated separately, and the combined and expanded uncertainty values were calculated at the 95% confidence level. The measured concentrations for 3 mg/kg of chlorite and chlorate standard materials were $3.18{\pm}0.32$ and $3.10{\pm}0.42mg/kg$, respectively. These results confirmed the reliability of the developed method for measuring the two chlorine-based oxyanions in fresh-cut vegetables.


chlorite;chlorate;fresh-cut vegetable;ion chromatography;measurement uncertainty


  1. MFDS. Temporary approval criteria for food safety standards and regulatory requirements. Ministry of Food and Drug Safety, Cheongju, Korea (2016)
  2. Wong GTF, Davidson JA. The fate of chlorine in seawater. Water Res. 11: 971-978 (1977)
  3. Werdehoff KS, Singer PC. Chlorine dioxide effects on THMFP, TOXFP, and the formation of inorganic by-products. J. Am. Water Works Assoc. 79: 107-13 (1987)
  4. Hoehn RC, Rosenblatt AA, Gates DJ. Considerations for chlorine dioxide treatment of drinking water. In: Conference Proceedings of AWWA Water Quality Technology Conference. November, 17-21, Boston, MA, USA (1996)
  5. Michalski R, Mathews B. Occurrence of chlorite, chlorate and bromate in disinfected swimming pool water. Pol. J. Environ. Stud. 16: 237-241 (2007)
  6. Pisarenko AN, Stanford BD, Quinones O, Pacey GE, Gordon G, Snyder SA. Rapid analysis of perchlorate, chlorate and bromate ions in concentrated sodium hypochlorite solutions. Anal. Chem. Acta 659: 216-223 (2010)
  7. Zhu BH, Zhong Z, Yao J. Ion chromatographic determination of trace iodate, chlorite, chlorate, bromide and nitrite in drinking water using suppressed conductivity detection and visible detection. J. Chromatogr. A 1118: 106-110 (2006)
  8. US EPA. Method 300.1 Determination of Inorganic Anions in Drinking Water by Ion Chromatography. United States Environmental Protection Agency. Washington, D.C. USA (1993)
  9. US EPA. Method 317.0 Determination of inorganic oxyhalide disinfection by-products in drinking water using ion chromatography with the addition of a postcolumn reagent for trace bromate analysis. United States Environmental Protection Agency. Washington, D.C. USA (2001)
  10. Kim J, Marshall MR, Du WX, Otwell WS, Wei CI. Determination of chlorate and chlorite and mutagenicity of seafood treated with aqueous chlorine dioxide. J. Agr. Food Chem. 47: 3586-3591 (1999)
  11. Trinetta V, Vaidya N, Linton R, Morgan M. Evaluation of chlorine gas residues on selected food produce. J. Food Sci. 76: 11-15 (2011)
  12. Kim DS. Jung SJ, Lee GY, Yun SS, Lim HS, Kim HK. Ion chromatographic determination of chlorite and chlorate in chlorinated food using a hydroxide eluent. Anal. Sci. Technol. 2: 1-11 (2017)
  13. KRISS. Uncertainty of Measurement: Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM:1995). Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejon, Korea (2010)
  14. EURACHEM/CITAC Guide: Quantifying Uncertainty in Analytical Measurement. 3rd ed. London, UK (2012)
  15. BIPM. JCGM:100 Evaluation of Measurement Data - Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement. Bureau International des Poids et Mesures - Joint Committee for Guides in Meteorology, 1st ed. France (2008)
  16. NIER. QA/QC Handbook for the Environmental Pollutants Analysis and Sampling Techniques. National Institute of Environmental Research, Incheon, Korea (2011)
  17. KOLAS. Guideline for Quantifying and Expressing the Uncertainty in Measurement Results. Korea Laboratory Accreditation Scheme, Daejon, Korea (2000)
  18. Tsai LS, Huxsoll CC, Robertson G. Prevention of potato spoilage during storage by chlorine dioxide. J. Food Sci. 66: 472-477 (2001)
  19. MFDS. Chlorine Dioxide. In: Analytical Methods of Food Additives in Foods. Ministry of Food and Drug Safety, Cheongju, Korea. pp. 261-264 (2014)
  20. European Union (EU). Report on the Relationship between Analytical Results, Measurement Uncertainty, Recovery Factors and the Provisions of EU Food and Feed Legislation, with Particular Reference to Community Legislation Concerning. Available from: Accessed Jun. 6, 2017.


Supported by : Ministry of Food and Drug Safety