DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Effects of fermentation by the commercial starter ABT-5 on the flavor and antioxidant activities of dark chocolate

복합 유산균 스타터 ABT-5를 이용한 발효 다크 초콜릿의 항산화 활성 및 향기 성분

  • Received : 2017.08.26
  • Accepted : 2017.10.20
  • Published : 2017.12.31

Abstract

Chocolate, one of the most popular confectioneries in the world, is known for its aromatic flavor and high antioxidant activities. In this study, we investigated the effects of fermentation with commercially available lactic acid bacteria, ABT-5, on the flavor and antioxidant activities of dark chocolate. During 24 h fermentation, pH decreased from 5.52 to 3.97 and total acidity increased from 0.51 to 1.85%, whereas total polyphenol and flavonoid contents as well as DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities remained unchanged. Furthermore, compared with control HepG2 cells treated with unfermented dark chocolate, those treated with the fermented dark chocolate showed significantly lower levels of reactive oxygen species and higher viability under $H_2O_2-induced$ oxidative stress. Finally, GC-MS and headspace GC-MS analysis detected 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone and 2-furanmethanol, known to enhance flavor, in the fermented dark chocolate. Collectively, these results suggest that ABT-5-fermented dark chocolate could be utilized for developing value-added dark chocolate products.

Keywords

dark chocolate;fermentation;antioxidant;GC-MS;Headspace GC-MS

References

  1. Hasler CM. Functional foods: Their Role in Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. Food Technol.-Chicago 52: 63-147 (1998)
  2. Ares G, Besio M, Gimenez A, Deliza R. Relationship between involvement and functional milk desserts intention to purchase. Influence on attitude towards packaging characteristics. Appetite 55: 298-304 (2010) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2010.06.016
  3. Belscak-Cvitanovic A, Komes D, Dujmovic M, Karlovic S, Biskic M, Brncic M, Jezek D. Physical, bioactive and sensory quality parameters of reduced sugar chocolates formulated with natural sweeteners as sucrose alternatives. Food Chem. 167: 61-70 (2015) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.06.064
  4. Kang S, Lee JS, Jeong A, Kim E, Park S. The effects of using artificial sweeteners and coffee grounds in chocolate filling on quality characteristics and glycemic index. J. Appl. Biol. Chem. 57: 307-312 (2014) https://doi.org/10.3839/jabc.2014.048
  5. Lee E, Kum J, Hwang Y, Tu O, Jo H, Kim J, Chae Y. Comparative study on antioxidant capacities and polyphenolic contents of commercially available cocoa-containing products. J. Korean Soc. Food Sci. Nutr. 41: 1356-1362 (2012) https://doi.org/10.3746/jkfn.2012.41.10.1356
  6. Kim B, Kim, D, Lee S, Shin H. Preparation of coated citric acid for sensory improvement of chocolate products. KSBB J. 10: 443-448 (2010)
  7. Hooper L, Kay C, Abdelhamid A, Kroon PA, Cohn JS, Rimm EB, Cassidy A. Effects of chocolate, cocoa, and flavan-3-ols on cardiovascular health: asystematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 95: 740-751 (2012) https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.111.023457
  8. Suazo Y, Davidov-Pardo G, Arozarena I. Effect of fermentation and roasting on the phenolic concentration and antioxidant activity of cocoa from Nicaragua. J. Food Qual. 37: 50-56 (2014) https://doi.org/10.1111/jfq.12070
  9. Alanon M, Castle S, Siswanto P, Cifuentes-Gomez T, Spencer JP. Assessment of flavanol stereoisomers and caffeine and theobromine content in commercial chocolates. Food Chem. 208: 177-184 (2016) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.03.116
  10. Katz DL, Doughty K, Ali A. Cocoa and chocolate in human health and disease. Antioxid. Redox Sign. 15: 2779-2811 (2011) https://doi.org/10.1089/ars.2010.3697
  11. Lamuela-Raventos RM, Romero-Perez AI, Andres-Lacueva C, Tornero A. Review: health effects of cocoa flavonoids. Food Sci. Technol. Int. 11: 159-176 (2005) https://doi.org/10.1177/1082013205054498
  12. Sokolov AN, Pavlova MA, Klosterhalfen S, Enck P. Chocolate and the brain: neurobiological impact of cocoa flavanols on cognition and behavior. Neurosci. Biobehav. R. 37: 2445-2453 (2013) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2013.06.013
  13. Konar N, Toker OS, Oba S, Sagdic O. Improving functionality of chocolate: A review on probiotic, prebiotic, and/or synbiotic characteristics. Trends Food Sci. Tech. 49: 35-44 (2016) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2016.01.002
  14. Wilson PK. Centuries of seeking chocolates medicinal benefits. Lancet 376: 158-159 (2010) https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(10)61099-9
  15. Park K, Kim BK. Lactic acid bacteria in vegetable fermentations. 4th ed. pp. 187-211. In: Lactic Acid Bacteria: Microbiological and Functional Aspects. Lahtinen S, Ouwehand AC, Salminen S, von Wright A (ed). CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL, USA (2011)
  16. Juvonen R, Honkapaa K, Maina NH, Shi Q, Viljanen K, Maaheimo H, Virkki L, Tenkanen M, Lantto R. The impact of fermentation with exopolysaccharide producing lactic acid bacteria on rheological, chemical and sensory properties of pureed carrots (Daucus carota L.). Int. J. Food Microbiol. 207: 109-118 (2015) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2015.04.031
  17. Dickson-Spillmann M, Siegrist M, Keller C. Attitudes toward chemicals are associated with preference for natural food. Food Qual. Prefer. 22: 149-156 (2011) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodqual.2010.09.001
  18. Chen Y, Huang Y, Bai Y, Fu C, Zhou M, Gao B, Wang C, Li D, Hu Y, Xu N. Effects of mixed cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactobacillus plantarum in alcoholic fermentation on the physicochemical and sensory properties of citrus vinegar. LWT-Food Sci. Technol. 84: 753-763 (2017) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2017.06.032
  19. Pogaeiae T, Maillard M, Leclerc A, Herva C, Chuat V, Yee AL, Florence V, Thierry A. A methodological approach to screen diverse cheese-related bacteria for their ability to produce aroma compounds. Food Microbiol. 46: 145-153 (2015) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fm.2014.07.018
  20. Jia R, Chen H, Chen H, Ding W. Effects of fermentation with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG on product quality and fatty acids of goat milk yogurt. J. Dairy Sci. 99: 221-227 (2016) https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2015-10114
  21. Cagno RD, Filannino P, Gobbetti M. Lactic acid fermentation drives the optimal volatile flavor-aroma profile of pomegranate juice. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 248: 56-62 (2017) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2017.02.014
  22. Dongmo SN, Sacher B, Kollmannsberger H, Becker T. Key volatile aroma compounds of lactic acid fermented malt based beverages-impact of lactic acid bacteria strains. Food Chem. 229: 565-573 (2017) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2017.02.091
  23. Cagno RD, Minervini G, Rizzello CG, Angelis MD, Gobbetti M. Effect of lactic acid fermentation on antioxidant, texture, color and sensory properties of red and green smoothies. Food Microbiol. 28: 1062-1071 (2011) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fm.2011.02.011
  24. Salmeron I, Fucinos P, Charalampopoulos D, Pandiella SS. Volatile compounds produced by the probiotic strain Lactobacillus plantarum NCIMB 8826 in cereal-based substrates. Food Chem. 117: 265-271 (2009) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.03.112
  25. Wah TT, Walaisri S, Assavanig A, Niamsiri N, Lertsiri S. Co-culturing of Pichia guilliermondii enhanced volatile flavor compound formation by Zygosaccharomyces rouxii in the model system of Thai soy sauce fermentation. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 160: 282-289 (2013) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2012.10.022
  26. Park J, Moon H, Oh J, Lee J, Choi K, Cha J, Lee T, Lee M, Jung H. Antibacterial activity of lactic acid bacteria isolated from traditional fermented foods and development of a starter for fermented milk. Korean J. Food Preserv. 20: 712-719 (2013) https://doi.org/10.11002/kjfp.2013.20.5.712
  27. Zoumpopoulou G, Pot B, Tsakalidou E, Papadimitriou K. Dairy probiotics: Beyond the role of promoting gut and immune health. Int. Dairy J. 67: 46-60 (2017) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.idairyj.2016.09.010
  28. Carnasecchi S, Schneider Y, Lazarus SA, Coehlo D, Gossa F, Raul F. Flavanols and procyanidins of cocoa and chocolate inhibit growth and polyamine biosynthesis of human colonic cancer cells. Cancer Lett. 175: 147-155 (2002) https://doi.org/10.1016/S0304-3835(01)00731-5
  29. Cheung LM, Cheung PCK, Ooi VEC. Antioxidant activity and total phenolics of edible mushroom extracts. Food Chem. 81: 249-255 (2003) https://doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(02)00419-3
  30. Brand-Williams W, Cuvelier ME, Berset C. Use of a free radical method to evaluate antioxidant activity. LWT-Food Sci. Technol. 28: 25-30 (1995) https://doi.org/10.1016/S0023-6438(95)80008-5
  31. Re R, Pellegrini N, Proteggente A, Pannala A, Yang M, Rice-Evans C. Antioxidant activity applying an improved ABTS radical cation decolorization assay. Free Radical. Bio. Med. 26: 1231-1237 (1999) https://doi.org/10.1016/S0891-5849(98)00315-3
  32. Bozaniae R, Lovkoviae S, Jelieiae I. Optimising fermentation of soymilk with probiotic bacteria. Czech J. Food Sci. 29: 51-56 (2011) https://doi.org/10.17221/97/2010-CJFS
  33. Kang HR, Koh SY, Ryu J, Osman A, Lee CK, Lim JH, Kim HA, Im GH, Cho SK. Antioxidant activities and physicochemical properties of chocolate fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum CK10. Korean J. Food Preserv. 23:576-584 (2016)
  34. Kaprasob R, Kerdchoechuen O, Laohakunjit N, Sarkar D, Shetty K. Fermentation-based biotransformation of bioactive phenolics and volatile compounds from cashew apple juice by select lactic acid bacteria. Process Biochem. 59: 141-149 (2017) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procbio.2017.05.019
  35. Filannino P, Azzi L, Cavoski I, Vincentini O, Rizzello CG, Gobbetti M, Cagno RD. Exploitation of the health-promoting and sensory properties of organic pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) juice through lactic acid fermentation. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 163: 184-192 (2013) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2013.03.002
  36. Oh BT, Jeong SY, Velmurugan P, Park JH, Jeong DY. Probioticmediated blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) fruit fermentation to yield functionalized products for augmented antibacterial and antioxidant activity. J. Biosci. Bioeng. 124: 542-550 (2017) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiosc.2017.05.011
  37. Sun YP, Chou CC, Yu RC. Antioxidant activity of lactic-fermented Chinese cabbage. Food Chem. 115: 912-917 (2009) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.12.097
  38. Seo YH, Kim IJ, Yie AS, Min HK. Electron donating ability and contents of phenolic compounds, tocopherols and carotenoids in waxy corn (Zea mays L.). Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 31:581-585 (1999)
  39. Chen C, Wang L, Wang R, Luo X, Li Y, Li J, Li Y, Chen Z. Phenolic contents, cellular antioxidant activity and antiproliferative capacity of different varieties of oats. Food Chem. 239: 260-267 (2018) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2017.06.104
  40. Mercier P, Yerushalmi L, Rouleau D, Dochain D. Kinetics of lactic acid fermentation on glucose and corn by Lactobacillus amylophilus. J. Chem. Technol. Biot. 55: 111-121 (1992)
  41. Nichols NN, Sharma LN, Mowery RA, Chambliss CK, van Walsum GP, Dien BS, Iten LB. Fungal metabolism of fermentation inhibitors present in corn stover dilute acid hydrolysate. Enzyme Microb. Tech. 42: 624-630 (2008) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enzmictec.2008.02.008
  42. Ha JS, Park SK, Park CH, Seung TW, Guo TJ, Kang JY, Lee DS, Kim JM, Lee U, Heo HJ. Neuronal cell protective effect of new green extract against $H_2O_2$-induced oxidative stress and analysis of bioactive compounds. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 47: 673-679 (2015) https://doi.org/10.9721/KJFST.2015.47.5.673

Acknowledgement

Supported by : 한국연구재단