- Volume 17 Issue 12
DOI QR Code
Consumer Resistance to Smartwatches: Gender and Age Differences
스마트 워치 소비자 저항에 영향을 미치는 요인: 수용 보류 집단의 성별, 연령별 집단 차이 비교
- Received : 2017.08.30
- Accepted : 2017.10.12
- Published : 2017.12.28
The purpose of this study is to investigate the factors affecting consumer resistance of smart watches, focusing on consumer groups. SPSS 19.0 was used to conduct a descriptive analysis and multi regression analysis of the data. This study is based on the questionnaire data of 407 consumers. The results of this study are as follows. First, the relative advantage was identified as a factor in reducing consumer resistance across all gender and age groups. Second, complexity has been identified as a factor that increases the consumer resistance of female consumers, and consumer groups in their 20s and 40s. Third, esthetics was found to reduce consumer resistance in men, women, and the consumer group in their 20s. Fourth, subjective norms were identified as a factor reducing consumer resistance in women and in consumer groups in their 20s and 30s. Fifth, the risk of privacy was identified as a factor in increasing consumer resistance in men and the consumer group in their 40s. The results of this study can be helpful to understand consumer resistance to smartwatches.
Supported by : 한국연구재단
- R. Rawassizadeh, B. A. Price, and M. Petre, "Wearables: Has the Age of Smartwatches Finally Arrived?," Communications of the ACM, Vol.58, No.1, pp.45-47, 2015. https://doi.org/10.1145/2629633
- M. E. Cecchinato, A. L. Cox, and J. Bird, "Smartwatches: the Good, the Bad and the Ugly?," In Proceedings of the 33rd Annual ACM Conference Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems pp.2133-2138, 2015.
- J. Choi and S. Kim, "Is the Smartwatch an IT Product or a Fashion Product? A Study on Factors Affecting the Intention to Use Smartwatches," Computers in Human Behavior, Vol.63, pp.777-786, 2016. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2016.06.007
- https://www.digitaltrends.com/wearables/apple -watch-apps-comparison/
- S. H. W. Chuah, P. A. Rauschnabel, N. Krey, B. Nguyen, T. Ramayah, and S. Lade, "Wearable Technologies: The Role of Usefulness and Visibility in Smartwatch Adoption. Computers in Human Behavior, Vol.65, pp.276-284, 2016. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2016.07.047
- E. M. Rogers, Diffusion of Innovations, Free Press. New York, 2003.
- http://www.seattletimes.com/business/apple-wa tch-becomes-a-study-on-attention/
- K. Steck and H. Tan, "Transformation of the Digital Watch: The Evolution and What It Signals," IEEE Consumer Electronics Magazine, Vol.5, No.1, pp.89-92, 2016. https://doi.org/10.1109/MCE.2015.2484758
- K. J. Kim and D. H. Shin, "An Acceptance Model for Smart Watches: Implications for the Adoption of Future Wearable Technology," Internet Research, Vol.25, No.4, pp.527-541, 2015. https://doi.org/10.1108/IntR-05-2014-0126
- https://www.forbes.com/sites/paullamkin/2015/ 05/11/101-million-smartwatch-shipments-by-2020-with-apple-and-google-leading-the-way/# 3a44055a42ae
- S. Ram, "A Model of Innovation Resistance," ACR North American Advances, Vol.14, pp.208-212, 1987.
- S. Ram and J. N. Sheth, "Consumer Resistance to Innovations: The Marketing Problem and Its Solutions," Journal of Consumer Marketing," Vol.6, No.2, pp.5-14, 1989. https://doi.org/10.1108/EUM0000000002542
- K. Sin Tan, S. Choy Chong, B. Lin, and U. Cyril Eze, "Internet-based ICT Adoption: Evidence from Malaysian SMEs," Industrial Management & Data Systems, Vol.109, No.2, pp.224-244, 2009. https://doi.org/10.1108/02635570910930118
- Z. Mani and I. Chouk, "Drivers of Consumers' Resistance to Smart Products," Journal of Marketing Management, Vol.33, No.1, pp.76-97, 2017. https://doi.org/10.1080/0267257X.2016.1245212
- R. A. Bauer and D. F. Cox, Risk Taking and Information Handling in Consumer Behavior, Boston: Harvard University Press, 1967.
- J. W. Taylor, "The Role of Risk in Consumer Behavior," The Journal of Marketing, Vol.38, No.2, pp.54-60, 1974. https://doi.org/10.2307/1250198
- Cui Ming, 이승신, "중국 상품에 대한 지각된 위험이 상품평가, 신뢰 및 구매지연에 미치는 영향," 소비문화연구, 제19권, 제2호, pp.1-21, 2016.
- 김준우, 박수현, 이건희, 곽현호, "스마트 워치 구매의도에 미치는 영향: 개인 혁신성의 조절효과," 2016년 한국경영정보학회 춘계학술대회, pp.81-88, 2016.
- 배재권, "웨어러블 디바이스 소비자의 혁신특성, 소비자특성, 혁신저항, 그리고 수용의도와의 구조적 관계: 혁신저항모형과 인지된 위험이론을 기반으로," 정보시스템연구, 제25권, 제4호, pp.87-104, 2016.
- V. P. Rindova and A. P. Petkova, "When Is a New Thing a Good Thing? Technological Change, Product form Design, and Perceptions of Value for Product Innovations," Organization Science, Vol.18, No.2, pp.217-232, 2007. https://doi.org/10.1287/orsc.1060.0233
- P. A. Rauschnabel, A. Brem, and Y. Ro, Augmented Reality Smart Glasses: Definition, Conceptual Insights, and Managerial Importance, The University of Michigan- Dearborn, College of Business, 2015.
- M. Horton, J. C. Read, D. Fitton, L. Little, and N. Toth, "Too Cool at School-understanding Cool Teenagers," PsychNology Journal, Vol.10, No.2, pp.73-91, 2012.
- N. Southgate, "Coolhunting With Aristotle Welcome to the Hunt," International Journal of Market Research, Vol.45, pp.167-189, 2003.
- Y. Jung, S. Kim, and B. Choi, "Consumer Valuation of the Wearables: The Case of Smartwatches," Computers in Human Behavior, Vol.63, pp.899-905, 2016. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2016.06.040
- M. Fishbein and I. Ajzen, Belief. Attitude, Intention and Behavior: An Introduction to Theory and Research Reading, Addison-Wesley, 1975.
- T. Bhatti, "Exploring Factors Influencing the Adoption of Mobile Commerce," Journal of Internet Banking and Commerce, Vol.12, No.12, pp.1-13, 2007.
- D. H. Shin, "MVNO Services: Policy Implications for Promoting MVNO Diffusion," Telecommunications Policy, Vol.34, No.10, pp.616-632, 2010. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.telpol.2010.07.001
- 안대천, 김상훈, "이용자의 성별 세분화에 따른 모바일커머스 수용에 관한 연구," 광고연구, Vol.88, pp.7-36, 2011.
- E. Garbarino and M. Strahilevitz, "Gender Differences in the Perceived Risk of Buying Online and the Effects of Receiving a Site Recommendation," Journal of Business Research, Vol.57, No.7, pp.768-775, 2004. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0148-2963(02)00363-6
- B. Yang and D. Lester, "Gender Differences in e-commerce," Applied Economics, Vol.37, No.18, pp.2077-2089, 2005. https://doi.org/10.1080/00036840500293292
- J. Meyer-Levy and D. Madeswaran, "Exploring Differences in Males' and Females' Processing Strategy," Journal of Consumer Research, Vol.18, No.1, pp.63-70, 1991. https://doi.org/10.1086/209241
- M. J. Sanchez-Franco, A. F. V. Ramos, and F. A. M. Velicia, "The Moderating Effect of Gender on Relationship Quality and Loyalty Toward Internet Service Providers," Information & Management, Vol.46, No.3, pp.196-202, 2009. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.im.2009.02.001
- H. Nysveen, P. E. Pedersen, and H. Thorbjornsen, "Explaining Intention to Use Mobile Chat Services: Moderating Effects of Gender," Journal of Consumer Marketing, Vol.22, No.5, pp.247-256, 2005. https://doi.org/10.1108/07363760510611671
- S. Rodgers and M. A. Harris, "Gender and e-commerce: An Exploratory Study," Journal of Advertising Research, Vol.43, No.3, pp.322-329, 2003. https://doi.org/10.2501/JAR-43-3-322-329
- H. Dittmar, K. Long, and R. Meek, "Buying on the Internet: Gender Differences in Cn-line and Conventional Buying Motivations," Sex Roles, Vol.50, No.5, pp.423-444, 2004. https://doi.org/10.1023/B:SERS.0000018896.35251.c7
- G. Hofstede, Culture's Consequences: Comparing Values, Behaviors, Institutions and Organizations Across Nations, Sage publications, 2003.
- 조화, 스마트폰 이용자의 성별.연령별 이용현황 에 대한 연구, Internet & Security Focus, 2003.
- Y. B. Chiu, C. P. Lin, and L. L. Tang, "Gender Differs: Assessing a Model of Online Purchase Intentions in e-tail Service," International Journal of Service Industry Management, Vol.16, No.5, pp.416-435, 2005. https://doi.org/10.1108/09564230510625741
- 강현모, 김지헌, "소셜커머스 이용의도에 영향을 미치는 요인에 대한 연구," 한국경영과학회지, Vol.38, No.2, pp.117-139, 2013. https://doi.org/10.7737/JKORMS.2013.38.2.117
- 이종옥, 김용문, "국내 스마트폰 사용자들의 앱북 구매행위에 미치는 영향요인 연구," 한국전자거래학회지, Vol.18, No.3, pp.45-67, 2013. https://doi.org/10.7838/jsebs.2013.18.3.045
- 정재욱. 연령대별 스마트폰의 수용 및 사용에영향을 미치는 요인에 관한 비교 연구, 연세대학교 대학원, 석사학위논문, 2013.
- A. Morris, J. Goodman, and H. Brading, "Internet Use and Non-use: Views of Older Users," Universal Access in the Information Society, Vol.6, No.1, pp.43-57, 2007. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10209-006-0057-5
- 진선진, 하규수, 기술혁신수용유형에 따른 유비쿼터스 주거환경 수요도, 호서대학교 대학원, 박사학위논문, 2009.
- 최정일, 장예진, "스마트 폰의 연령별 이용 형태와 보안의 필요성," 융합보안논문지, Vol.15, No.6, pp.89-97, 2015.
- http://www.yonhapnews.co.kr/bulletin/2017/01 /09/0200000000AKR20170109149600017.HTML
- R. C. Tzou and H. P. Lu, "Exploring the Emotional, Aesthetic, and Ergonomic Facets of Innovative Product on Fashion Technology Acceptance Model," Behaviour & Information Technology, Vol.28, No.4, pp.311-322, 2009. https://doi.org/10.1080/01449290701763454
- H. Verkasalo, C. Lopez-Nicolas, F. J. Molina-Castillo, and H. Bouwman, "Analysis of Users and Non-users of Smartphone Applications," Telematics and Informatics, Vol.27, No.3, pp.242-255, 2010. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tele.2009.11.001
- Z. Jiang, C. S. Heng, and B. C. Choi, "Research Note-Privacy Concerns and Privacy-Protective Behavior in Synchronous Online Social Interactions. Information Systems Research, Vol.24, No.3, pp.579-595, 2013. https://doi.org/10.1287/isre.1120.0441
- R. Thakur and M. Srivastava, "A study on the Impact of Consumer Risk Perception and Innovativeness on Online Shopping in India," International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, Vol.43, No.2, pp.148-166, 2015. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJRDM-06-2013-0128
- J. F. Hair, W. C. Black, B. J. Babin, R. E. Anderson, and R. L. Tatham, SEM: confirmatory factor analysis. Multivariate data analysis, Pearson Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, 2006.
- 여정성, 전상민, 김소연, 소비자연구방법, 교문사, 2012.
- L. Shashaani and A. Khalili, "Gender and Computers: Similarities and Differences in Iranian College Students' Attitudes Toward Computers," Computers & Education, Vol.37, No.3, pp.363-375, 2001. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0360-1315(01)00059-8
- 정수경, 홍정표, "국가 간 선호 디자인의 심미성 요소 비교연구-한.중 소비자 선호휴대폰의 심미성요소 분석을 중심으로," 감성과학, 제9권, 제1호, pp.49-61, 2006.
- 이웅규, 박진훈, "브랜드 애착과 지각된 심미성이 새로운 스마트폰에 대한 구매의도에 미치는 효과," 정보시스템연구, 제23권, 제4호, pp.147-168, 2014.
- V. Venkatesh, M. G. Morris, and P. L. Ackerman, "A Longitudinal Field Investigation of Gender Differences in Individual Technology Adoption Decision-making Processes," Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, Vol.83, No.1, pp.33-60, 2000. https://doi.org/10.1006/obhd.2000.2896