- Volume 12 Issue 2
DOI QR Code
Fault Analysis Method for Power Distribution Grid with PCS-based Distributed Energy Resources
- Kim, Dong-Eok (KEPCO Research Institute, Korea Electric Power Corporation) ;
- Cho, Namhun (KEPCO Research Institute, Korea Electric Power Corporation)
- Received : 2016.07.18
- Accepted : 2016.11.22
- Published : 2017.03.01
In this study, we propose a fault analysis method for a power distribution grid with PCS-based DERs. We first explain the characteristics of a PCS-based DER. According to the characteristics, the DER is considered as a current-controlled voltage source, which produces varying voltages within a certain limit so that currents equal to given references flowing from the DER to the grid (currents controlled). So, we introduce the symmetrical equivalent models in the form of varying voltage source for fault analysis and then, construct a convex optimization problem to solve the fault problem associated with the equivalent models and grid conditions. Thus, the proposed method enables to perform a proper fault analysis considering the characteristics of the DER, which are currents controlled, voltage limited, and unity power factor achievement. To verify the validity of the proposed method, we perform computer simulations with the proposed method and with MATLAB Simulink, and the results are compared.
- B. Kroposki, R. Lasseter, T. Ise, S. Morozumi, S. Papathanassiou, and N. Hatziargyriou "Making microgrids work," IEEE Power and Energy Magazine, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 40-53, May-Jun. 2008. https://doi.org/10.1109/MPE.2008.918718
- A. K. Basu, S. P. Chowdhury, S. Chowdhury, and S. Paul, "Microgrids: Energy management by strategic deployment of DERs - A comprehensive survey," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 15, no. 9, pp. 4348-4356, Dec. 2011. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2011.07.116
- B. Kroposki, R. Margolis, G. Kuswa, J. Torres, W. Bower, T. Key, and D. Ton, "Renewable systems interconnection - executive summary," Technical Report, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, NREL/TP-581-42292, Feb. 2008.
- Th. Boutsika, S. Papathanassiou, and N. Drossos, "Calculation of the fault level contribution of distributed generation according to IEC Standard 60909," CIGRE Symposium Athens, Apr. 2005.
- J. A. Carr, J. C. Balda, and H. A. Mantooth, "A survey of systems to integrate distributed energy resources and energy storage on the utility grid," IEEE Energy 2030 Conference, Atlanta, Nov. 2008.
- M. Liserre, F. Blaabjerg, and S. Hansen, "Design and control of an LCL-filter-based three-phase active rectifier," IEEE Trans. Ind. Applicat., vol. 31, no. 5, pp. 1281-1291, Sept. 2005.
- M. Prodanovic and T. C. Green, "Control of power quality in inverter-based distributed generation," IEEE IECON, Nov. 2002, vol. 2, pp. 1185-1189.
- Advanced-Energy Inc., "Neutral connections and effective grounding," White Paper, 2013. Available: http://solarenergy.advancedenergy.com/upload/File/White_Papers/ENG-TOV-270-01%20web.pdf.
- A. Nelson, A. Hoke, S. Chakraborty, J. Chebahtah, T. Wang, and B. Zimmerly, "Inverter load rejection overvoltage testing," Technical Report, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, NREL/TP-5D00-63510, Feb. 2015.
- A. Hoke, A. Nelson, S. Chakraborty, J. Chebahtah, T. Wang, and M. McCarty, "Inverter ground fault overvoltage testing," Technical Report, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, NREL/TP-5D00-64173, Aug. 2015.
- L. Wieserman and T.E. McDermott, "Fault current and overvoltage calculations for inverter-based generation using symmetrical components," IEEE Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition, Sept. 2014, pp. 2619-2624.
- C. A. Plet, M. Brucoli, J. D. F. McDonald, and T. C. Green, "Fault models of inverter-interfaced distributed generators: experimental verification and application to fault analysis," IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting, Jul. 2011.
- D.-W. Chung, J.-S. Kim, and S.-K. Sul, "Unified voltage modulation technique for real-time three-phase power conversion," IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 374-380, Mar./Apr. 1998. https://doi.org/10.1109/28.663482
- Y. Ohta, A. Ohori, N. Hattori, and K. Hirata, "Controller design of a grid-tie inverter bypassing DQ transformation," 52nd IEEE Conf. on Decision and Control, Dec. 2013, pp. 2927-2932.
- V. Kaura and V. Blasko, "Operation of a phase locked loop system under distorted utility conditions," IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 58-63, Jan./Feb. 1997. https://doi.org/10.1109/28.567077
- H.-S. Kim, J.-W. Baek, J. Cho, J. Kim, and J. Kim, "Output voltage balancing methods of 3-level NPC rectifier for low voltage DC distribution," 9th International Conference on Power Electronics and ECCE Asia, Jun. 2015, pp. 2539-2544.
- D.-E. Kim and M. A. El-Sharkawi, "Dynamic equivalent model of wind power plant using an aggregation technique," IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 1639-1649, Dec. 2015. https://doi.org/10.1109/TEC.2015.2470531
- A. R. Bergen and V. Vittal, Power System Analysis: 2nd Edition. NJ, USA; Prentice-Hall, 2000.
- M. Grant and S. Boyd, CVX - MATLAB software for disciplined convex programming, version 2.0 beta. http://cvxr.com/cvx, Sept. 2013.