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Effects of Chronic Sleep Fragmentation and Diet Restriction on Appetite-Regulating Hormones and Cardiometabolic Indicators

만성 분절수면과 식이제한이 식욕조절 호르몬 및 심혈관 위험지표에 미치는 영향

  • Jun, Nuri (Department of Foods and Nutrition, College of Natural Sciences, Kookmin University) ;
  • Baik, Inkyung (Department of Foods and Nutrition, College of Natural Sciences, Kookmin University)
  • 전누리 (국민대학교 자연과학대학 식품영양학과) ;
  • 백인경 (국민대학교 자연과학대학 식품영양학과)
  • Received : 2016.09.12
  • Accepted : 2017.01.17
  • Published : 2017.02.28

Abstract

Data are limited on biological mechanisms underlying the associations of sleep insufficiency with obesity and dyslipidemia. To explore these mechanisms, we investigated appetite-regulating hormones, stress-related hormones, and cardiometabolic indicators in association with sleep fragmentation, which is a type of sleep disorder. In an experimental study, we randomly allocated 40 Wistar male rats aged 7 weeks into four groups; rats with ad libitum sleep and ad libitum intake (Control), those exposed to sleep fragmentation (SF), those with diet restriction (DR), and those exposed to sleep fragmentation and diet restriction (SF+DR). Amongst them, 13-day chronic sleep fragmentation was applied to the SF and SF+DR groups while 50% reduction in chow intake was applied to the DR and SF+DR groups for 13 days. After these experiments, blood lipid and lipoprotein profiles, leptin, ghrelin, adiponectin, cortisol, epinephrine, and norepinephrine levels were compared among the four groups. In the results, the SF group showed the highest levels of serum ghrelin (P<0.001) and the lowest levels of serum adiponectin (P<0.01). All experimental groups showed higher levels of low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) than the Control (P<0.001). LDL-C levels and the ratio of LDL-C and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol were positively correlated with ghrelin levels (P<0.05) in the SF group, but not in the DR and SF+DR groups. In the SF group, the highest levels of serum free fatty acids were also observed and correlated with lower levels of serum adiponectin, which reflects insulin resistance (P<0.05). Based on these findings, we suggest that chronic sleep fragmentation may induce disturbances in lipid metabolism and appetite-regulating hormones independent of food intake, and these metabolic disturbances may be worse due to insulin resistance related to overeating, which is indicated by elevated ghrelin levels in sleep fragmentation. For persons with sleep insufficiency, anti-atherogenic dietary interventions may be recommended to prevent cardiovascular disease.

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