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Analysis and Risk Assessment of N-Nitrosodimethylamine and Its Precursor Concentrations in Korean Commercial Kimchi

국내 유통 김치 중 N-Nitrosodimethylamine과 그 전구물질의 함량 분석 및 안전성 평가

  • Kang, Kyung Hun (Department of Seafood Science and Technology, Institute of Marine Industry, Gyeongsang National University) ;
  • Kim, Sung Hyun (World Institute of Kimchi) ;
  • Kim, Sang-Hyun (College of Veterinary Medicine, Gyeongsang National University) ;
  • Kim, Jeong Gyun (Department of Seafood Science and Technology, Institute of Marine Industry, Gyeongsang National University) ;
  • Sung, Nak-Ju (Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Gyeongsang National University) ;
  • Lim, Heekyung (Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Gwangju University) ;
  • Chung, Mi Ja (Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Gwangju University)
  • 강경훈 (경상대학교 해양식품공학과.해양산업연구소) ;
  • 김성현 (세계김치연구소) ;
  • 김상현 (경상대학교 수의학과) ;
  • 김정균 (경상대학교 해양식품공학과.해양산업연구소) ;
  • 성낙주 (경상대학교 식품영양학과) ;
  • 임희경 (광주대학교 식품영양학과) ;
  • 정미자 (광주대학교 식품영양학과)
  • Received : 2016.11.28
  • Accepted : 2017.01.03
  • Published : 2017.02.28

Abstract

Dimethylamine (DMA), nitrate, nitrite, and biogenic amines (BA) are precursors of carcinogenic N-nitrosamines. This study investigated contamination levels of DMA, nitrate, nitrite, and BA in various types of Korean commercial kimchi such as Baechu kimchi, Kkakduki, Chonggak kimchi, Matkimchi, ripened Baechu kimchi, and Baek kimchi. The average DMA, nitrate, and nitrite levels in Baechu kimchi were 29.7, 2,178.8, and 3.0 mg/kg, respectively. Low levels of DMA and nitrate were detected in Kkakduki. Tryptamine, putrescine, cadaverine, tyramine, and spermidine were detected in kimchi with exclusion of Baek kimchi and Chonggak kimchi. Tryptamine in Baek kimchi was only present in trace amount, and spermidine was not detected in Chonggak kimchi. The average tryptamine, putrescine, cadaverine, tyramine, and spermidine levels in Baechu kimchi were 15.0, 64.6, 18.0, 44.0, and 7.8 mg/kg, respectively. A low level of tyramine was detected in Kkakduki. In addition, contamination of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) was detected in Kkakduki at a level of $1.38{\mu}g/kg$. Daily exposure to NDMA in the consumer only group was estimated using average daily Kkakduki consumption and average body weight of the total population. The estimated daily intake of NDMA by Kkakduki was $2.31{\times}10^{-7}mg/kg\;b.w./d.$ The margin of exposure to NDMA for the general population was 259,924. Accordingly, the health risk from NDMA caused by intake of Kkakduki was considered to be very low.

Acknowledgement

Supported by : 세계김치연구소

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