Insights into the in vitro germicidal activities of Acalypha indica

  • Rahman, Md. Shahedur (Department of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Jessore University of Science and Technology) ;
  • Hossain, Riad (Department of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Jessore University of Science and Technology) ;
  • Saikot, Forhad Karim (Department of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Jessore University of Science and Technology) ;
  • Rahman, Shaikh Mizanur (Department of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Jessore University of Science and Technology) ;
  • Saha, Subbroto Kumar (Department of Stem Cell and Regenerative Biology, Konkuk University) ;
  • Hong, Jongki (College of Pharmacy, Kyung Hee University) ;
  • Kim, Ki-Hyun (Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Hanyang University)
  • Received : 2016.12.07
  • Accepted : 2017.02.03
  • Published : 2017.02.25


Background and purpose: This study was carried out to learn more about the potential prophylactic or antibacterial activity of the plant Acalypha indica against selective pathogenic bacteria. Experimental: The test organisms were Sarcina lutea IFO 3232, Bacillus subtilis IFO 3026, Pseudomonas denitrificans, Escherichia coli IFO 3007, Klebsiella pneumoniae ATTC 10031, Xanthomonas campestris IAM 1671, and Proteus vulgaris. Leaf, stem, and bud powder of Acalypha indica were dissolved in various solvents, and the extracts were tested for antimicrobial activity through the disc diffusion method. GC-MS profiling was performed to characterize active chemical compounds in the essential oil of Acalypha indica. Results: The ethanol extract showed the highest activity against all bacteria, while the petroleum ether extract yielded the highest zone of inhibition against Proteus vulgaris ($11.83{\pm}1.75mm$). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the ethyl acetate extract against Bacillus subtilis was 16 µg/mL. Phytochemical screening by GC-MS revealed a total of 12 bioactive compounds. Conclusion: Extracts of Acalypha indica may be useful in formulating and synthesizing new antibacterial drugs.


Acalypha indica;antibacterial activity;MIC;GC-MS


Supported by : Jessore University of Science and Technology, National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF)


  1. A. S. Fauci, N. A. Touchette, and G. K. Folkers, Emerg. Infect. Dis., 11(4), 519-525 (2005).
  2. H.Westh, C. S. Zinn, V. T. Rosdahl, and S. S. Group, Microb. Drug Resist., 10(2), 169-176 (2004).
  3. A. Afolayan, Pharm. Biol., 41(1), 22-25 (2003).
  4. V. Gangadevi, S. Sethumeenal, S. Yogeswari, and G. Rani, Indian J. Sci. Technol., 1(5), 1-6 (2008).
  5. V. Schulz, R. Hänsel, and V. E. Tyler, Rational phytotherapy: a physician's guide to herbal medicine: 4th Ed., Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, 2001.
  6. T. Selvamohan, V. Ramadas, and S. S. S. Kishore, Adv. Appl. Sci. Res., 3(5), 3374-3381 (2012).
  7. D. Jagatheeswari, J. Deepa, H. Sheik, and P. Ranganathan, Int. J. Res. Bot., 1, 19-22 (2013).
  8. K. K. Behera, Ethnobotanic. Leaflets, 10(1), 149-173 (2006).
  9. K. Sudharameshwari and J. Radhika, Afr. J. Tradit. Complement. Altern. Med., 4(2), 199-204 (2008).
  10. R. Saha and A. Ahmed, Int. J. Pharm. Sci. Res., 2(11), 2934-2937 (2011).
  11. T. Sinha and A. Bandyopadhaya, Int. J. Res. Pharm. Sci., 3, 360-368 (2012).
  12. S. Jain, Ethnobot. Search New Drugs, 185, 153-168 (1994).
  13. J. S. Reddy, P. R. Rao, and M. S. Reddy, J. Ethnopharmacol., 79(2), 249-251 (2002).
  14. S. Bhalerao and T. Kelkar, Int. Res. J. Biol. Sci., 1(5), 79-84 (2012).
  15. P. Paindla and E. Mamidala, Online Int. Interdiscip. Res. J., 4(1), 175-182 (2014).
  16. R. M. Kunwar, K. P. Shrestha and R. W. Bussmann, J. Ethnobiol. Ethnomed., 6(1), 35 (2010).
  17. A. Rahman, Z. S. Shanta, M. Rashid, T. Parvin, S. Afrin, M. K. Khatun, and M. Sattar, Arab. J. Chem., 9(1), S475-S479 (2016).
  18. A. Bauer, W. Kirby, J. C. Sherris, and M. Turck, Am. J. Clin. Pathol., 45(4), 493-496 (1966).
  19. S. Rahman, A. K. Parvez, R. Islam, and M. H. Khan, Ann. Clin. Microbiol. Antimicrob., 10(1), 1 (2011).
  20. A. Bejaoui, H. Chaabane, M. Jemli, A. Boulila, and M. Boussaid, J. Med. Food, 16(12), 1115-1120 (2013).
  21. T. Cachet, Flavour Frag. J., 26(5), 297-299 (2011).
  22. M. T. Peres, F. D. Monache, A. B. Cruz, M. G. Pizzolatti, and R. A. Yunes, J. Ethnopharmacol., 56(3), 223-226 (1997).
  23. A. Falodun, S. Ali, I. M. Quadir, and I. M. Choudhary, J. Med. Plants Res., 2(12), 365-369 (2009).
  24. O. Irobi, M. Moo-Young, W. Anderson, and S. Daramola, J. Ethnopharmacol., 43(3), 185-190 (1994).
  25. M. Somchit, I. Reezal, I. E. Nur, and A. Mutalib, J. Ethnopharmacol., 84(1), 1-4 (2003).
  26. K. R. Durga, S. Karthikumar, and K. Jegatheesan, J. Med. Plants Res., 3(10), 703-706 (2009).
  27. T. Murugan and P. Saranraj, Int. J. Pharm. Biol. Sci. Res., 2(5), 1473-1478 (2011).
  28. M. Govindarajan, A. Jebanesan, D. Reetha, R. Amsath, T. Pushpanathan, and K. Samidurai, Eur. Rev. Med. Pharmacol. Sci., 12(5), 299-302 (2008).
  29. J. A. Gansau, J. Environ. Microbiol. Toxicol., 1(1), 18-24 (2014).
  30. S. Arunkumar and M. Muthuselvam, World J. Agri. Sci., 5(5), 572-576 (2009).