DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Stability Analysis of FCHEV Energy System Using Frequency Decoupling Control Method

  • Dai, Peng (School of Electrical and Power Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology) ;
  • Sun, Weinan (School of Electrical and Power Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology) ;
  • Xie, Houqing (School of Electrical and Power Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology) ;
  • Lv, Yan (School of Electrical and Power Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology) ;
  • Han, Zhonghui (School of Electrical and Power Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology)
  • Received : 2016.09.01
  • Accepted : 2016.12.30
  • Published : 2017.03.20

Abstract

Fuel cell (FC) is a promising power supply in electric vehicles (EV); however, it has poor dynamic performance and short service life. To address these shortcomings, a super capacitor (SC) is adopted as an auxiliary power supply. In this study, the frequency decoupling control method is used in electric vehicle energy system. High-frequency and low-frequency demand power is provided by SC and FC, respectively, which makes full use of two power supplies. Simultaneously, the energy system still has rapidity and reliability. The distributed power system (DPS) of EV requires DC-DC converters to achieve the desired voltage. The stability of cascaded converters must be assessed. Impedance-based methods are effective in the stability analysis of DPS. In this study, closed-loop impedances of interleaved half-bridge DC-DC converter and phase-shifted full-bridge DC-DC converter based on the frequency decoupling control method are derived. The closed-loop impedance of an inverter for permanent magnet synchronous motor based on space vector modulation control method is also derived. An improved Middlebrook criterion is used to assess and adjust the stability of the energy system. A theoretical analysis and simulation test are provided to demonstrate the feasibility of the energy management system and the control method.

References

  1. C. C. Chan, "The state of the art of electric, hybrid, and fuel cell vehicles," Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 95, No. 4, pp. 704-718, Apr. 2007. https://doi.org/10.1109/JPROC.2007.892489
  2. K. Sedghisigarchi and A. Feliachi, "Impact of fuel cells on load-frequency control in power distribution systems," IEEE Trans. Energy Convers., Vol. 21, No. 1, pp. 250-256, Mar. 2006. https://doi.org/10.1109/TEC.2005.847962
  3. J. S. Lai and D. J. Nelson, "Energy management power converters in hybrid electric and fuel cell vehicles," Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 95, No. 4, pp. 766-777, Apr. 2007. https://doi.org/10.1109/JPROC.2006.890122
  4. A. F. Burke, "Batteries and ultracapacitors for electric, hybrid, and fuel cell vehicles," Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 95, No. 4, pp. 806-820, Apr. 2007. https://doi.org/10.1109/JPROC.2007.892490
  5. P. Thounthong, S. Rael, and B. Davat, "Utilizing fuel cell and supercapacitors for automotive hybrid electrical system," in 20th Annual IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition (APEC), pp. 90-96, Mar. 2005.
  6. H. Rahimi-Eichi, U. Ojha, F. Baronti, and M.-Y. Chow, "Battery management system: an overview of its application in the smart grid and electric vehicles," IEEE Ind. Electron. Mag., Vol. 7, No. 2, pp. 4-16, Jun. 2013. https://doi.org/10.1109/MIE.2013.2250351
  7. A. Florescu, A. I. Bratcu, I. Munteanu, A. Rumeau, and S. Bacha, "LQG optimal control applied to on-board energy management system of all-electric vehicles," IEEE Trans. Control Syst. Technol., Vol. 23, No. 4, pp. 1427-1439, Jul. 2015. https://doi.org/10.1109/TCST.2014.2372472
  8. H. Alloui, K. Marouani, M. Becherif, M. N. Sid, and M. E. H. Benbouzid, "A control strategy scheme for fuel cell-vehicle based on frequency decoupling," in International Conference on Green Energy, pp. 170-175, Mar. 2014.
  9. X. Zhang and C. Mi, Vehicle power management: modeling, control and optimization, Springer, Vol. 14, No. 2, pp. 91-118, Jan. 2011.
  10. X. Zhang, Q. C. Zhong, and W. L. Ming., "Stabilization of cascaded DC/DC converters via adaptive series-virtual-impedance control of the load converter," IEEE Trans. Power Electron., Vol. 31, No. 9, pp. 6057-6063, Sep. 2016. https://doi.org/10.1109/TPEL.2016.2524629
  11. X. Feng, J. Liu, and F. C. Lee, "Impedance specifications for stable DC distributed power systems," IEEE Trans. Power Electron., Vol. 17, No. 2, pp. 157-162, Mar. 2002. https://doi.org/10.1109/63.988825
  12. A. Emadi, "Modelling of power electronic loads in AC distribution systems using the generalized state space averaging method," IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., Vol. 51, No. 5, pp. 992-1000, Oct. 2004. https://doi.org/10.1109/TIE.2004.834950
  13. X. Xiong, C. K. Tse, and X. Ruan, "Bifurcation analysis of standalone photovoltaic-battery hybrid power system," IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I, Reg. Papers, Vol. 60, No. 5, pp. 1354-1365, May 2013. https://doi.org/10.1109/TCSI.2013.2239140
  14. A. Khaligh, "Realization of parasitics in stability of DC-DC converters loaded by constant power loads in advanced multiconverter automotive systems," IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., Vol. 55, No. 6, pp. 2295-2305, Jun. 2008. https://doi.org/10.1109/TIE.2008.918395
  15. A. M. Rahimi and A. Emadi, "Active damping in DC/DC power electronic converters: a novel method to overcome the problems of constant power loads," IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., Vol. 56, No. 5, pp. 1428-1439, May 2009. https://doi.org/10.1109/TIE.2009.2013748
  16. M. Huang, S. C. Wong, C. K. Tse, and X. Ruan, "Catastrophic bifurcation in three-phase voltage-source converters," IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I, Reg. Papers, Vol. 60, No. 4, pp.1062-1071, Apr. 2013. https://doi.org/10.1109/TCSI.2012.2209299
  17. X. Zhang, X. Ruan, H. Kim, and C. K. Tse, "Adaptive active capacitor converter for improving the stability of cascaded DC power supply system," IEEE Trans. Power Electron., Vol. 28, No. 4, pp. 1807-1816, Apr. 2013. https://doi.org/10.1109/TPEL.2012.2213268
  18. P. Garcia, L. M. Fernandez, C. A. Garcia, and F. Jurado, "Energy management system of fuel-cell-battery hybrid tramway," IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., Vol. 57, No. 12, pp. 4013-4023, Dec. 2010. https://doi.org/10.1109/TIE.2009.2034173
  19. S. Caux, W. Hankache, M. Fadel, and D. Hissel, "On-line fuzzy energy management for hybrid fuel cell systems," International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Vol. 35, No. 5, pp. 2134-2143, Mar. 2010. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2009.11.108
  20. Z. Amjadi and S. S. Williamson, "Power-electronics-based solutions for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle energy storage and management systems," IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., Vol. 57, No. 2, pp. 608-616, Feb. 2010. https://doi.org/10.1109/TIE.2009.2032195
  21. B. Vural, A. R. Boynuegri, I. Nakir, O. Erdinc, A. Balikci, M. Uzunoglu, H. Gorgun, and S. Dusmez, "Fuel cell and ultra-capacitor hybridization: A prototype test bench based analysis of different energy management strategies for vehicular applications," International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Vol. 35, No. 20, pp. 11161-11171, Oct. 2010. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2010.07.063
  22. W. Greenwell and A. Vahidi, "Predictive control of voltage and current in a fuel cell-ultracapacitor hybrid," IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., Vol. 57, No. 6, pp. 1954-1963, Jun. 2010. https://doi.org/10.1109/TIE.2009.2031663
  23. J. Moreno, M. E. Ortuzar, and J. W. Dixon, "Energy management system for a hybrid electric vehicle, using ultracapacitors and neural networks," IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., Vol. 53, No. 2, pp. 614-623, Apr. 2006. https://doi.org/10.1109/TIE.2006.870880
  24. R. D. Middlebrook, "Input filter considerations in design and application of switching regulators," in Proceeding of the IEEE IAS, pp. 366-382, 1976.
  25. X. Zhang, X. Ruan, and C. K. Tse, "Impedance-based local stability criterion for DC distributed power systems," IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I, Reg. Papers, Vol. 62, No. 3, pp. 916-925, Mar. 2015. https://doi.org/10.1109/TCSI.2014.2373673
  26. V. Vlatkovic, J. A. Sabate, R. B. Ridley, F. C. Lee, and B. H. Cho, "Small-signal analysis of the phase-shifted PWM converter," IEEE Trans. Power Electron., Vol. 7, No. 1, pp. 128-135, Jan. 1992. https://doi.org/10.1109/63.124585
  27. X. Liu and A. J. Forsyth, "Active stabilization of a PMSM drive system for aerospace applications," in IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conference (PESC), pp. 283-289, Jun. 2008.
  28. X. Liu, A. J. Forsyth, and A. M. Cross, "Negative input resistance compensator for a constant power load," IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., Vol. 54, No. 6, pp. 3188-3196, Dec. 2007. https://doi.org/10.1109/TIE.2007.896474
  29. S. D. Sudhoff, K. A. Corzine, S. F. Glover, H. J. Hegner, and H. N. Robey, "DC link stabilized field oriented control of electric propulsion systems," IEEE Trans. Energy Convers., Vol. 13, No. 1, pp. 27-33, Mar. 1998. https://doi.org/10.1109/60.658200
  30. Z. Tao and B Francois, "Energy management and power control of a hybrid active wind generator for distributed power generation and grid integration," IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., Vol. 58, No. 1, pp. 95-104, Jan. 2011. https://doi.org/10.1109/TIE.2010.2046580
  31. Q. Jiang, Y. Gong, and H. Wang, "A battery energy storage system dual-layer control strategy for mitigating wind farm fluctuations," IEEE Trans. Power Syst., Vol. 28, No. 3, pp. 3263-3273, Aug. 2013. https://doi.org/10.1109/TPWRS.2013.2244925
  32. A. Tani, M. B. Camara, and B. Dakyo, "Energy management based on frequency approach for hybrid electric vehicle applications: fuel-cell/lithium-battery and ultra- capacitors," IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., Vol. 61, No. 8, pp. 3375-3386, Oct. 2012. https://doi.org/10.1109/TVT.2012.2206415
  33. A. Tani, M. B. Camara, B. Dakyo, and Y. Azzouz, "DC/DC and DC/AC converters control for hybrid electric vehicles energy management-ultracapacitors and fuel cell," IEEE Trans. Ind. Informat., Vol. 9, No. 2, pp. 686-696, May 2013. https://doi.org/10.1109/TII.2012.2225632
  34. S. N. Motapon, L. A. Dessaint, and K. Al-Haddad, "A comparative study of energy management schemes for a fuel-cell hybrid emergency power system of more electric aircraft," IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., Vol. 61, No. 3, pp. 1320-1334, Mar 2014. https://doi.org/10.1109/TIE.2013.2257152