DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Anti-Diabetic Effects of an Ethanol Extract of Cassia Abbreviata Stem Bark on Diabetic Rats and Possible Mechanism of Its Action - Anti-diabetic Properties of Cassia abbreviata -

  • Received : 2016.10.09
  • Accepted : 2017.03.08
  • Published : 2017.03.31

Abstract

Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the hypoglycemic effects of an ethanol extract of Cassia abbreviata (ECA) bark and the possible mechanisms of its action in diabetic albino rats. Methods: ECA was prepared by soaking the powdered plant material in 70% ethanol. It was filtered and made solvent-free by evaporation on a rotary evaporator. Type 2 diabetes was induced in albino rats by injecting 35 mg/kg body weight (bw) of streptozotocin after having fed the rats a high-fat diet for 2 weeks. Diabetic rats were divided into ECA-150, ECA-300 and Metformin (MET)-180 groups, where the numbers are the doses in mg.kg.bw administered to the groups. Normal (NC) and diabetic (DC) controls were given distilled water. The animals had their fasting blood glucose levels and body weights determined every 7 days for 21 days. Oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) were carried out in all animals at the beginning and the end of the experiment. Liver and kidney samples were harvested for glucose 6 phosphatase (G6Pase) and hexokinase activity analyses. Small intestines and diaphragms from normal rats were used for ${\alpha}-glucosidase$ and glucose uptake studies against the extract. Results: Two doses, 150 and 300 mg/kg bw, significantly reduced the fasting blood glucose levels in diabetic rats and helped them maintain normal body weights. The glucose level in DC rats significantly increased while their body weights decreased. The 150 mg/kg bw dose significantly increased hexokinase and decreased G6Pase activities in the liver and the kidneys. ECA inhibited ${\alpha}-glucosidase$ activity and promoted glucose uptake in the rats' hemi-diaphragms. Conclusion: This study revealed that ECA normalized blood glucose levels and body weights in type 2 diabetic rats. The normalization of the glucose levels may possibly be due to inhibition of ${\alpha}-glucosidase$, decreased G6Pase activity, increased hexokinase activity and improved glucose uptake by muscle tissues.

References

  1. Wild S, Roglic G, Green A, Sicree R, King H. Global prevalence of diabetes. Estimates for the year 2000 and projections for 2030. Diabetes Care. 2004;27(5):1047-53. https://doi.org/10.2337/diacare.27.5.1047
  2. American Diabetes Association. Diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care. 2012;33(S1):62-9.
  3. Shearer BG, Billin AN. The next generation of PPAR drugs: do we have the tools to find them?. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2007;1771(8):1082-93. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbalip.2007.05.005
  4. Noh RM, Graveling AJ, Frier BM. Medically minimising the impact of hypoglycaemia in type 2 diabetes: a review. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2011;12(14):2161-75. https://doi.org/10.1517/14656566.2011.589835
  5. WHO Expert Committee on Diabetes Mellitus. The effect of intensive treatment of diabetes on the development and the progression of long term complications in IDDM. Technical Report Series 646. Geneva: World Health Organization; 1980. 123 p.
  6. Setshogo MP, Mbereki CM. Floristic diversity and uses of medicinal plants sold by street vendors in Gaborone, Botswana. Afri. J. Plant Sci. Biotech. 2011;5:69-74.
  7. Venter F, Venter J. Making the most of indigenous trees. Pretoria: Briza Publications; 2009. 92 p.
  8. Leteane MM, Ngwenya BN, Muzila M, Namushe A, Mwinga J, Musonda R, et al. Old plant newly discovered: Cassia sieberiana D.C and Cassia abbreviata Oliv. root extracts inhibit in vitro HIV-1c replication in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) by different modes of action. J Ethnopharmacol. 2012;141(1):48-56. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2012.01.044
  9. Shai LJ, Masoko P, Mokgotho MP, Magano SR, Mogale AM, Boaduo N, et al. Yeast alpha glucosidase inhibitory and antioxidant activities of six medicinal plants collected in Phalaborwa, South Africa. S Afr J Bot. 2010;76(3):465-70. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sajb.2010.03.002
  10. Somani G, Chaudhari RS, Sancheti J, Sathaye S. Inhibition of carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes by methanolic extract of Couroupita guianensis leaves. Int J Pharm Bio Sci. 2012;3(4):511-20.
  11. Ahmed F, Urooj A. In vitro studies on the hypoglycemic potential of Ficus racemosa stem bark. J Sci Food Agric. 2010;90(3):397-401. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.3828
  12. Bisswanger H. Practical enzymology. Weinhiem: Wiley-VCH; 2004. 69 p.
  13. Tiwari AK, Rao JM. Diabetes mellitus and multiple therapeutic approaches of phytochemicals: present status and future prospects. Curr Sci. 2002;83(1):30-8.
  14. Shai LJ, Magano SR, Lebelo SL, Mogale AM. Inhibitory effects of five medicinal plants on rat alpha-glucosidase: comparison with their effects on yeast alpha-glucosidase. J Med Plants Res. 2011;5(13):2863-7.
  15. Ferrier DR. Lippincott's illustrated reviews: biochemistry. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins; 2011. 53 p.
  16. Richter EA, Hargreaves M. Exercise, GLUT4 and skeletal muscle glucose uptake. Physiol Rev. 2013;93(3):993-1017. https://doi.org/10.1152/physrev.00038.2012
  17. Erasto P, Majinda RT. Bioactive proanthocyanidins from the root bark of Cassia abbreviata. Int J Biol Chem Sci. 2011;5(5):2170-9.
  18. Mongalo NI. Antibacterial activities of selected medicinal plants used to treat sexually transmitted infections in Blouberg area, Limpopo Province. [Dissertation]. [South Africa (SA)]: University of Zululand; 2013. 78 p.
  19. Mithieux G, Guignot L, Bordet JC, Wiernsperger N. Intrahepatic mechanisms underlying the effect of metformin in decreasing basal glucose production in rats fed a high fat diet. Diabetes. 2002;51(1):139-43. https://doi.org/10.2337/diabetes.51.1.139
  20. Mallick C, Chatterjee K, Guhabiswas M, Ghosh D. Antihyperglycemic effects of separate and composite extract of root of Musa paradisiaca and leaf of Coccinia indica in streptozotocin-induced diabetic male albino rat. Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. 2007;4(3):362-371.
  21. Arion JW, Canfield WK, Callaway ES, Burger HJ, Hermmerle H, Schubert G, et al. Direct evidence for the involvement of two glucose 6 phosphate binding sites in the glucose 6 phosphatase activity of intact liver microsomes. J Biol Chem. 1998;273(11):6223-7. https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.273.11.6223
  22. Bhandari U, Somabhai HC, Khanna G, Najmi AK. Antidiabetic effects of Embelia ribes extract in high fat diet and low dose streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetic rats. Front Life Sci. 2013;7(3):186-96. https://doi.org/10.1080/21553769.2014.881304
  23. Massa ML, Gagliardino JJ, Francini F. Liver glucokinase: an overview on the regulatory mechanisms of its activity. IUBMB Life. 2011;63(1):1-6. https://doi.org/10.1002/iub.411
  24. Torres TP, Catlin RL, Chan R, Fujimoto Y, Sasaki N, Printz RL, et al. Restoration of hepatic glucokinase expression corrects hepatic glucose flux and normalizes plasma glucose in zucker diabetic fatty rats. Diabetes. 2009;58(1):78-86. https://doi.org/10.2337/db08-1119

Cited by

  1. Review on medicinal plants and natural compounds as anti-Onchocerca agents vol.117, pp.9, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00436-018-6003-7