Treatment with Rutin - A Therapeutic Strategy for Neutrophil-Mediated Inflammatory and Autoimmune Diseases - Anti-inflammatory Effects of Rutin on Neutrophils -

  • Nikfarjam, Bahareh Abd (Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences) ;
  • Adineh, Mohtaram (Department of Immunology, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences) ;
  • Hajiali, Farid (Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences) ;
  • Nassiri-Asl, Marjan (Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences)
  • Received : 2017.01.04
  • Accepted : 2017.02.03
  • Published : 2017.03.31


Objectives: Neutrophils represent the front line of human defense against infections. Immediately after stimulation, neutrophilic enzymes are activated and produce toxic mediators such as pro-inflammatory cytokines, nitric oxide (NO) and myeloperoxidase (MPO). These mediators can be toxic not only to infectious agents but also to host tissues. Because flavonoids exhibit antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, they are subjects of interest for pharmacological modulation of inflammation. In the present study, the effects of rutin on stimulus-induced NO and tumor necrosis factor $(TNF)-{\alpha}$ productions and MPO activity in human neutrophils were investigated. Methods: Human peripheral blood neutrophils were isolated using Ficoll-Hypaque density gradient centrifugation coupled with dextran T500 sedimentation. The cell preparations containing > 98% granulocytes were determined by morphological examination through Giemsa staining. Neutrophils were cultured in complete Roswell Park Memorial Institute (RPMI) medium, pre-incubated with or without rutin ($25{\mu}M$) for 45 minutes, and stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). Then, the $TNF-{\alpha}$, NO and MPO productions were analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), Griess Reagent, and MPO assay kits, respectively. Also, the viability of human neutrophils was assessed using tetrazolium salt 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT), and neutrophils were treated with various concentrations of rutin ($1-100{\mu}M$), after which MTT was appended and incubated at $37^{\circ}C$ for 4 hour. Results: Rutin at concentrations up to $100{\mu}M$ did not affect neutrophil viability during the 4-hour incubation period. Rutin significantly decreased the NO and $TNF-{\alpha}$ productions in human peripheral blood neutrophils compared to PMA-control cells (P < 0.001). Also, MPO activity was significantly reduced by rutin (P < 0.001). Conclusion: In this in vitro study, rutin had an anti-inflammatory effect due to its inhibiting NO and $TNF-{\alpha}$ productions, as well as MPO activity, in activated human neutrophils. Treatment with rutin may be considered as a therapeutic strategy for neutrophil-mediated inflammatory/autoimmune diseases.


Supported by : Qazvin University of Medical Sciences


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