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Trends in energy intake among Korean adults, 1998-2015: Results from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

  • Yun, Sungha (Division of Health and Nutrition Survey, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) ;
  • Kim, Hyun Ja (Department of Food and Nutrition, Gangneung-Wonju National University) ;
  • Oh, Kyungwon (Division of Health and Nutrition Survey, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
  • Received : 2016.07.18
  • Accepted : 2016.12.15
  • Published : 2017.04.01

Abstract

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Assessing changes in energy intake and dietary sources is important to understand trends in the prevalence of obesity. Thus, we examined trends in energy intake and its nutrient and food sources in Korean adults from 1998 through 2015. SUBJECTS/METHODS: This study included 70,769 subjects aged ${\geq}19$ years who completed a nutrition survey. Subject data were obtained from the 1998, 2001, 2005, 2007-2009, 2010-2012, and 2013-2015 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Dietary intake was assessed by a 1-day 24-hour recall method. RESULTS: In men, the daily energy intake significantly increased from 2,196 kcal in 1998 to 2,489 kcal in 2013-2015 (P for trend < 0.0001). However, the daily energy intake among women did not change significantly over the same period (P for trend = 0.5772). The percentages of energy intake from animal foods (e.g., meat and milk) and beverages increased during the study period in both men and women. However, the percentage of energy intake from plant foods decreased due to a marked decrease in the intake of white rice. Changes in food sources of energy intake led to changes in the nutrient sources of energy intake; for example, the increase of energy intake from fat and decrease of energy intake from carbohydrate. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that since 1998, energy intake has increased among Korean adult men, but not among women. However, the composition of food and nutrient sources of energy intake has changed in both men and women. Energy intake and its nutrient and food sources should continue to be monitored regularly in the Korean adult population.

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