Development of simple HPLC-UV method for discrimination of Adenophorae Radix

  • Vu, Thi Phuong Duyen (College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University) ;
  • Kim, Kyung Tae (College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University) ;
  • Pham, Yen (University of Science and Technology of Hanoi) ;
  • Bao, Haiying (School of Chinese Medicinal Material, Jilin Agricultural University) ;
  • Kang, Jong Seong (College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University)
  • Received : 2017.02.14
  • Accepted : 2017.04.11
  • Published : 2017.04.25


Adenophorae Radix (AR) is a frequently used medicinal herb; because of its popularity, products containing similar herbal products are often sold as substitutes, especially if their morphology is similar. However, any analytical method to identify AR based on quantitative analysis is not registered in Korea, Japan and China Pharmacopoeias. This study developed a simple HPLC method to discriminate between authentic AR and substitutes. Linoleic acid was used as a marker compound of AR. Our optimized HPLC-UV conditions included a mobile phase of 90 % acetonitrile under isocratic condition, and a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min at room temperature. Detection wavelength was set at 205 nm. Linoleic acid was detected at 13.5 minutes for a total analysis time of 20 minutes. The standard herb of AR contained 0.025 % of linoleic acid, while four authentic AR samples and eight substitutes contained 0.040~0.071 % and 0.004~0.014 %, respectively. Comparison of the linoleic acid concentrations of the sample types to reference AR showed that among 12 samples, only the four samples were authentic. Thus, our HPLC-UV method, along with our suggested content criterion for linoleic acid concentration, can be used for the quick and accurate determination whether the herbal products are authentic AR or substitute.


Adenophorae Radix;HPLC-UV;linoleic acid;discriminant analysis


Supported by : Chungnam National University


  1. L. Packer, C. N. Ong, and B. Halliwell, Herbal and Traditional Medicine, 2nd Ed., CRC Press, United States, 2004.
  2. The Ministry of Food and Drug Safety (MFDS), Adenophorae Radix, The Korean Herbal Pharmacopoeia, 4, 190 (2015).
  3. China Food and Drug Administration, Chinese Pharmacopoeia commission (CP), 244-245 (2015).
  4. D. Hong, T. Lammers and L. Klein, Adenophora genus, Flora of China, 19, 505-536 (2011).
  5. K. C. Huang, The Pharmacology of Chinese herbs, 2nd Ed., CRC press, United States, 1998.
  6. S. S. Roh, S. H. Kim, Y. C. Lee, and Y. B. Seo, Mediators Inflamm., 2008, 1-11 (2008).
  7. S. H. Min, H. S. Han, and Y. J. Lee, Kor. J. Haerbol., 24(3), 109-119 (2009).
  8. S. G. Li, H. Y. Chen, C. S. Yang, X. X. Wang, Z. J. Yang, Y. Tong, and W. Cho, Plos One, 8(2), e57604 (2013).
  9. W. H. Woo and Y. J. Mun, Composition containing extracts from Adenophorae Radix for reducing the melanogenesis, Pat. KR100555242B1, Republic Korean Kongkae Taeho Kongbo, South Korea (2005).
  10. R. Watson and V. Preedy, Botanical Medicine in Clinical Practice, 1st Ed., CABI, United Kingdom, 2008.
  11. C. H. Hempen and T. Fischer, A materia medica for Chinese medicine: plants, minerals and animal products, 1st Ed., Elsevier Health Sciences, Germany, 2009.
  12. K. J. Zhao, T. T. Dong, X. M. Cui, P. F. Tu, and K. W. Tsim, Am. J. Chin. Med., 31(06), 919-926 (2003).
  13. S. H. Zheng, D. W. Liu, W. G. Ren, J. Fu, L. Huang, and S. Chen, Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med., 1-11 (2014).
  14. Y. K. Park, H. H. Yoo, S. H. Baek, M. K. Park, S. H. Lee, C. M. Kim, and K. S. Lee, Kor. J. Pharmacogn., 34(1), 10-13 (2003).
  15. K. I. Won, B. T. Zhao, J. H. Lee, D. U. Lee, Y. S. Kim, B. S. Min, J. K. Son, and M. H. Woo, Nat. Prod. Sci., 20(4), 243-250 (2014).
  16. Y. P. Yoon, H. J. Lee, J. H. Hong, C. J. Lee, D. U. Lee, and S. K. Lee, Tuberc. Respir. Dis., 78(3), 210-217 (2015).
  17. P. Jiang and Z. Gao, China. J. Mater. Med., 15(8), 486-512 (1990).
  18. C. Konno, T. Saito, Y. Oshima, H. Hikino, and C. Kabuto, Planta Med., 42(3), 268-274 (1981).
  19. H. X. Kuang, C. J. Shao, R. Kasai, K. Ohtani, Z. K. Tian, J. D. Xu, and O. Tanaka, Chem. Pharm. Bull., 39(9), 2440-2442 (1991).
  20. J. H. Ward, J. Am. Stat. Assoc., 58, 236-244 (1963).
  21. Ministry of Food and Drug Safety of Korea, Validation guideline for set-up of components profiling in herbal medicine, 2010.
  22. National Center for Biotechnology Information, PubChem Compound Database,