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Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) ethanol extract elicits anti-inflammatory effects via the nuclear factor kappa B pathway and rescues mice from septic shock

  • Saba, Evelyn (Department of Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kyungpook National University) ;
  • Oh, Mi-Ju (Department of Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kyungpook National University) ;
  • Kwak, Dongmi (Department of Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kyungpook National University) ;
  • Roh, Seong-Soo (College of Korean Medicine, Daegu Hanny University) ;
  • Kwon, Hyuk-Woo (Department of Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kyungpook National University) ;
  • Kim, Sung-Dae (Department of Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kyungpook National University) ;
  • Rhee, Man Hee (Department of Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kyungpook National University)
  • Received : 2017.03.21
  • Accepted : 2017.05.19
  • Published : 2017.06.30

Abstract

Solanum lycopersicum, commonly known as tomato, is widely used in raw, cooked, or liquid forms because it contains nutritional compounds that are beneficial for human health, including carotenoids, lycopene, ascorbic acid, vitamins, and minerals. The tomato is perhaps the most widely studied fruit, especially with respect to its cardioprotective effects. In this study, we aimed to identify the anti-inflammatory mechanisms by which the tomato elicits its anti-inflammatory properties. We treated murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells with a tomato ethanol extract and performed various biochemical assays including nitric oxide inhibition, cell viability, RNA extraction, expression of pro-inflammatory mediators and cytokines, and immunoblotting, as well we assessed cell survival rates. Our results have shown for the first time that a tomato ethanol extract treatment can suppress nitric oxide production in a dose-dependent manner without cytotoxicity. Moreover, it inhibits the expression of pro-inflammatory mediators and cytokines and elicits its anti-inflammatory effects via the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells ($NF-{\kappa}B$) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. In addition, administration of tomato syrup potently rescued mice from septic shock induced by lipopolysaccharide injection. Collectively, our results elucidate details regarding the anti-inflammatory mechanisms of tomato.

Acknowledgement

Supported by : National Research Foundation of Korea

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