A Study on Design Optimization of an Axle Spring for Multi-axis Stiffness

다중 축 강성을 위한 축상 스프링 최적설계 연구

  • Received : 2017.04.26
  • Accepted : 2017.06.19
  • Published : 2017.06.30


The primary suspension system of a railway vehicle restrains the wheelset and the bogie, which greatly affects the dynamic characteristics of the vehicle depending on the stiffness in each direction. In order to improve the dynamic characteristics, different stiffness in each direction is required. However, designing different stiffness in each direction is difficult in the case of a general suspension device. To address this, in this paper, an optimization technique is applied to design different stiffness in each direction by using a conical rubber spring. The optimization is performed by using target and analysis RMS values. Lastly, the final model is proposed by complementing the shape of the weak part of the model. An actual model is developed and the reliability of the optimization model is proved on the basis of a deviation average of about 7.7% compared to the target stiffness through a static load test. In addition, the stiffness value is applied to a multibody dynamics model to analyze the stability and curve performance. The critical speed of the improved model was 190km/h, which was faster than the maximum speed of 110km/h. In addition, the steering performance is improved by 34% compared with the conventional model.


  1. N.P. Kim, J.H. Kim (2000) A study to determine the Design parameters of high speed freight wagon, Proceedings of Autumn Conference & Annual Meeting of the Korean Society for Railway, Uiwang, pp. 484-490.
  2. J.H. Park, H.M. Hur, H.I. Koh, W.H. You (2007), Concept design of an active steering bogie for urban railway vehicles, Journal of the Korean Society for Railway, 10(6), pp. 709-716.
  3. K.S. Sim, H.M. Hur, H.S. Song, T.W. Park (2014) Study of the active radial steering of a railway vehicle using the curvature measuring method, Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology, 28(11), pp. 4583-4591.
  4. I.K. Hwang, H.M. Hur, M.J. Kim, T.W. Park (2017) Analysis of the active control of steering bogies for the dynamic characteristics on the real track conditions, Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part F, pp. 1-12.
  5. C.S. Woo, W.D. Kim, B.I. Choi, H.S. Park, et al. (2009) Finite element analysis and evaluation of rubber spring for railway vehicle, Journal of the Korea Society of Mechanical Engineers, 33(8), pp. 773-778.
  6. C.S. Woo, H.S. Park (2016) Evaluation of characteristics and fatigue lifetime for conical rubber spring, Proceedings of Spring Conference of the Korean Society for Railway, Gyeongju, pp. 1-5.
  7. R.S. Rivlin, A.G. Thomas (1953) Rupture of rubber. I. Characteristic energy for tearing, Journal of Polymer Science, 10, pp. 291-318.
  8. H. Darijani, R. Naghdabadi (2010) Hyperelastic materials behavior modeling using consistent strain energy density functions, Acta Mechanica, 213, pp. 235-254.
  9. R.H. Myers, D.C. Montgomery, C.M. Anderson-cook (2016) Response surface methodology, WILEY, Hoboken, U.S.A., pp. 17-20.
  10. Z.G. Touhid (2013) Fatigue Life Prediction and Modeling of Elastomeric Components, PhD Thesis, The university of Toledo.
  11. S. Iwnicki (2006) Handbook of railway vehicle dynamics, CRC Press Taylor & Francis.
  12. Dassault Systemes (2013) Abaqus User's Manual Version 6.13, HKS Inc. , New York, U.S.A.
  13. K.S. Sim, T.W. Park, J.H. Lee, N.P. Kim (2014) Optimization of characteristics of longitudinal creepage for running stability on sharp curved track, Journal of the Korean Society for Railway, 17(1), pp. 19-27.
  14. Japanese Standards Association (2007) Testing method of dynamic properties for rubber vulcanized or thermoplastic, JIS K 6396.