The Effect of Parent's Sex-role Attitude on Parent-child Relationship in Multicultural Families

다문화 가정 부모의 성 역할태도가 부모-자녀관계에 미치는 영향

  • Yeon, Eun Mo (College of Basic Studies, Yeungnam University) ;
  • Choi, Hyo-sik (Department of Education, Chuncheon National University of Education)
  • 연은모 (영남대학교 교양학부) ;
  • 최효식 (춘천교육대학교 교육학과)
  • Received : 2017.03.02
  • Accepted : 2017.06.09
  • Published : 2017.06.30


The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of the actor and partner effects of the parental sex-role attitude on the parent-child relationship by using the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model (APIM). Specifically, this study focused on the examination of the actor and partner effects of the parental sex-role attitude in married couples with immigrant women who have children under 5 years old. For the analyses, a total of 5,531 couples who participated in the National Survey on Multi-cultural Families were included and the major findings are as follows. First, the couple's sex-role attitude had a statistically significant actor effect on the parent-child relationship. Parents who were more conscious of gender equality displayed a better parent-child relationship and this effect was greater in the case of the father's attitude than the mother's. Second, the father's sex-role attitude had a statistically significant partner effect on the mother-child relationship, whereas the mother's attitude did not. Third, the couple's actor effects were greater than their partner effects and this means that the personal sex-role attitude has a greater impact on the parent-child relationship than the partners' attitude. The implication and limitations derived from these empirical-scientific database results and related studies in educational program of gender equality attitude for multi-cultural families.

이 연구는 다문화 가정의 어머니와 아버지의 성 역할태도가 부모-자녀관계의 질에 미치는 자기효과와 상대방효과를 살펴보기 위한 서술적 인과관계 연구이다. 본 연구에서는 다문화 가정 부모의 커플자료 분석을 위해 여성가족부의 2015년 전국다문화가족실태조사 대상 중 만 5세 이하 자녀를 두고, 결혼이주여성과 한국인 남성으로 구성된 5,531쌍의 자료를 활용하였다. 자료 분석을 위해 SPSS 20.0과 AMOS 20.0 통계프로그램을 사용하였으며, 구조모형 검증 방법에 기초한 자기-상대방 상호의존모형(Actor-Partner Interdependence Model, APIM) 분석방법을 활용하였다. 분석 결과, 첫째, 어머니와 아버지 모두 성 역할태도가 부모-자녀관계에 미치는 자기효과가 확인되었다. 즉, 어머니와 아버지 모두 평등한 성 역할태도를 가질수록 긍정적인 부모-자녀관계를 형성하는 것으로 나타났다. 자기효과 간 크기 비교 결과, 어머니보다는 아버지의 경우 성 역할 태도가 부모-자녀관계에 더 큰 영향을 미치는 것으로 확인되었다. 둘째, 아버지의 성 역할태도는 어머니-자녀관계에 영향을 미치는 상대방효과가 있는 반면, 어머니의 성 역할태도가 아버지-자녀관계에 미치는 상대방효과는 통계적인 유의성이 없는 것으로 나타났다. 셋째, 어머니와 아버지 모두 상대방효과 보다는 자기효과가 더 큰 것으로 확인되었다. 이는 배우자의 성 역할태도 보다는 자신의 성 역할태도가 부모-자녀관계에 더 큰 영향을 미침을 의미한다. 본 연구 결과는 다문화 가정의 부모를 대상으로 한 부모 교육 시 평등한 성 역할태도 교육의 중요성을 시사한다. 특히 본 연구는 아버지의 경우에도 평등한 성 역할태도가 긍정적 자녀관계를 촉진할 수 있다는 경험과학적 증거를 확인했다는 의의가 있다.



  1. Burt, S. A., McGue, M., Iacono, W. G., Krueger, R. F., 2006, "Differential parent-child relationships and adolescent externalizing symptoms: Cross-lagged analyses within a monozygotic twin differences design", Developmental Psychology, vol. 42, no. 6, pp. 1289-1298, 2006. DOI:
  2. Klahr, A. M., Rueter, M. A., McGue, M., Iacono, W. G., Burt, S. A., "The relationship between parent-child conflict and adolescent antisocial behavior: Confirming shared environmental mediation", Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, vol. 39, pp. 683-694, 2011. DOI:
  3. O'Connor T, G., Wang, H., Moynihan J. A., Wyman P. A., Carnahan, J., Lofthus, G., Quataert, S. A., Bowman, M., Burke, A. S., Caserta, M. T., "Observed parent-child relationship quality predicts antibody response to vaccination in children", Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, vol. 48, pp. 265-273, 2015. DOI:
  4. Bowlby, J., "Attachment and loss: Retrospect and prospect", American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, vol 52, no. 4, pp. 664-678, 1982. DOI:
  5. Cassidy, J., Shaver, P. R., Handbook of attachment: Theory, research, and clinical applications, New York, NY: Guilford Press, 2008.
  6. Paulson, S. E., Hill, J. P., Holmbeck, G. N., "Distinguishing between perceived closeness and parental warmth in families with seventh-grade boys and girls", Journal of Early Adolescence, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 276-293, 1991. DOI:
  7. Sroufe, L. A., Egeland, B., Carlson, E. A., Collins, W. A., The development of the person: The Minnesota study of risk and adaptation from birth to adulthood, New York, NY: Guilford Press, 2009.
  8. J. Y. Kim, S. I. Nam, S. A. Choi, "The effects of parental discipline styles on adolescent hostility - Focusing on the mediating effect of the parent-child relationship", vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 121-147, 2010.
  9. M. G. Choi, Y. H. Kim, H. S. Jeong, "The effects of mother's parental and marital relationship on mother-child relations", Journal of Future Early Childhood Education, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 221-237, 2014.
  10. S. W. Jang, H. J. Chung, J. Y. Lee, "The influence of family-of-origin experiences and marital intimacy on parent-child relation", Journal of Family Relations, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 93-111, 2011.
  11. Y. Chin, N. Y. Lee, Y. J. Jeong, "Acculturation of immigrant parents and parent-adolescent child relationships in asian american families: A meta analysis", Journal of Family Relations, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 19-34, 2011.
  12. Cook, J. L., Kenny, D. A., "The actor-partner interdependence model: A model of bidirectional effects in developmental studies", International Journal of Behavioral Development, vol. 29, no 2, pp. 101-109, 2005. DOI:
  13. M. S. Park, "The effects of acculturative stress on parenting stress among marriage migrant women in Korea", Journal of the Korean society of child welfare, vol. 46, pp. 1-23, 2014.
  14. Y. H. Kim, "Gender relations and psychological well-being among the elderly", Korea Journal of Population Studies, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 1-30, 2004. DOI:
  15. S. H. Jang, "Socialization of gender role and satisfaction of business relation among male-female employee", Journal of Women's Studies, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 1-28, 1991.
  16. King, L. A., King, D. W., "Abbreviated measures of sex roles egalitarian attitudes", Sex Roles, vol. 23, pp. 659-673, 1990. DOI:
  17. E. H. Lee, "A study on the sex role attitude and marital satisfaction of dual-earner men and women across the family life cycle", Korean journal of family social work, vol. 10, pp. 99-119, 2002.
  18. H. S. Jeon, M. Seo, "Effects of conjugal power and gender role attitudes on marital satisfaction of middle-aged couples", Journal of the Korea Contents Association, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 349-357, 2012. DOI:
  19. Amato, R. R., Johnson, D. R., Booth, A., & Rogers, S. J., "Continuity and change in marital quality between 1980 and 2000", Journal of Marriage and Family, vol. 65, no. 1, pp. 1-22, 2003. DOI:
  20. Perry-Jenkins, M., Crouter, A. C., "Men's provider-role attitudes: Implications for household work and marital satisfaction", Journal of Family Issues, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 136-156, 1990. DOI:
  21. Jansen, M., Kalmijn, M., Investments in family life: The impact of value Orientations on patterns of consumption, production and reproduction in married and cohabiting couples, In R. Lesthaeghe (Ed.), "Meaning and choice: Value orientations and life course decisions", pp. 129-159, The Hague/ Brussels: Nidi/CBGS, 2002.
  22. Davies, P. T., Sturge-Apple, M. L., Woitach, M. J., Cummings, E. M., "A process analysis of the transmission of distress from interparental conflict to parenting: Adult relationship security as an explanatory mechanism", Developmental Psychology, vol. 45, no. 6, pp. 1761-1773, 2009. DOI:
  23. Stroud, C. B., Durbin, C. E., Wilson, S., Menelsohn, K. A. "Spillover to triadic and dyadic systems in families with young children", Journal of Family Psychology, vol. 25, no. 6, pp. 919-930, 2011. DOI:
  24. Cox, M. J., Paley, B., Harter, H, Interparental conflict and parent-child relationships. In J. H. Grych, F. D. Fincham (Eds.), "Interparental conflict and child development: Theory, research, and application", pp. 249-272, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2001. DOI:
  25. Kenny, D. A., "Models of non-independence in dyadic research", Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, vol. 13, no. 2. pp. 279-294, 1996. DOI:
  26. Kenny, D. A., Judd, C. M., "Consequences of violating the independence assumption in analysis of variance", Psychological Bulletin, vol. 99, no. 3, pp. 422-431, 1986. DOI:
  27. Little, T. D., Card, N. A., "On the use of social relations and actor-partner interdependence models in developmental research", International Journal of Behavioral Development, vol. 29 no. 2,, pp. 173-179, 2005. DOI:
  28. Cook, W. L., "Integrating models of interdependence with treatment evaluations in marital therapy research", Journal of Family Psychology, vol. 12, no. 4, 529-542, 1998. DOI:
  29. Kenny, D., Kashy, D., Cook, W., Dyadic data analysis, New York, NY: Guilford, 2006.
  30. Hoyle, R. H., Panter, A. T., Writing about structural equation models, In R. H. Hoyle (Ed.), "Structural equation modeling: Concepts, issues, and applications", pp. 158-176, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1995.
  31. Bentler, P. M. 1990, "Comparative fit indexes in structural models", Psychological Bulletin, vol. 107, no. 2, pp. 238-246, 1990. DOI:
  32. Steiger, J. H., "Structural model evaluation and modification: An interval estimation approach", Multivariate Behavioral Research, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 173-180, 1990. DOI:
  33. Tucker, L. R., Lewis, C., "A reliability coefficient for maximum likelihood factor analysis", Psychometrika, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 1-10, 1973. DOI:
  34. West, S., Finch, J., Curran, P., Structural equation models with non-normal variables: Problems and remedies, CA: Sage Publications, 1995.
  35. E. M. Yeon, H. O. Yoon, H. S. Choi, "Moderating effects of family incomes on the relationship among marital conflict, depression, and parenting attitude: The actor-partner interdependence model", The Journal of Korea Open Association for Early Childhood Education, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 1-28, 2016.
  36. Cabrera, N. J., Shannon, J. D., Tamis-LeMonda, C., "Fathers' influence on their children's cognitive and emotional development: From toddlers to pre-K", Applied Developmental Science, vol. 11, no. 4, 208-213, 2007. DOI:
  37. Weitzman, M., Rosenthal, D. G., Liu, Y.-H., "Paternal depressive symptoms and child behavioral or emotional problems in the United States", Pediatrics, vol. 128, no. 6, pp. 1126-1134, 2011. DOI:
  38. E. M. Lim, S. J. Jeong, S. J. Lee, "Marriage-based immigrant women's cultural adaptation types and acculturation stress", The Korea Journal of Counseling, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 957-973, 2010. DOI:
  39. Y. H. Choi, H. S. Lee, "A study discrimination experience, life satisfaction on international marriage women", Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, vol. 17, no. 2 pp. 96-103, 2016. DOI:
  40. S. O. Kim, H. S. Kim, "Effects of support from spouse and family on the child rearing among marriage immigrant women", Journal of the Korea Contents Association, vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 462-473, 2016. DOI:
  41. H. K. Lee, H. I. Jeon, "The effects of perceived social support on marital satisfaction in married immigrant women: Focused on the mediating effect of acculturative stress", Korean Journal of Family Welfare, vol. 18 no. 4, pp. 413-432, 2013. DOI:
  42. M. H. Jung, "Study on the effect of social support on parenting practices of immigrant women focusing on parent efficacy", Korean Journal of Youth Studies, vol. 20, no. 8, 257-276, 2013.
  43. M. J. Kim, B. S. Yee, M. R. Chung, "A short-term longitudinal study on the actor and partner effect of parenting efficacy on the parenting stress of parents with infants", Korean Journal of Childcare & Education, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 1-19, 2016. DOI: