A Study on the Structural Equation Model Among Components of Positive Experiences about Science

과학 긍정경험 구성 변인 간의 구조방정식 모형에 관한 연구

  • Received : 2017.05.29
  • Accepted : 2017.06.24
  • Published : 2017.06.30


The purpose of this study is to investigate a meaningful path model among the components of students' positive experiences about science and science learning to understand the interactive relationships among different variables of affective domains. Positive Experiences about Science (PES) means whole experiences that have positive effects on students' affectional achievement related with science learning, which consists of science academic emotion, science-related self-concept, science learning motivation, science-related attitude, and science-related career aspiration. We conducted an online survey with 1,841 students consisting of 4th, 6th, 8th, and 10th graders from 17 provinces and cities using Test for Indicators of Positive Experiences about Science (TIPES). To explore the structural relationships among variables, we selected and analyzed an optimal structural equation model and then conducted multigroup analyses among groups. According to the analysis of the structural equation model, 'positive as well as negative science academic emotion' has effects on science learning motivation, science-related attitude, and science-related career aspiration via science-related self-concept. According to the independent t-test results for TIPES scores by participants' characteristics, there were statistically significant differences in the average scores of five sub-components of PES depending on gender, school-level, school location, and participation in science-related activities. According to the multi-group analysis results, the difference of path coefficients by gender and school-level were statistically significant, whereas the difference of path coefficients by school location and participation were not significant. Discussed in the conclusion are the implications of this research for science education research and ways to help students' affectional achievement related with science learning.


positive experiences about science;science academic emotion;science-related self-concept;science learning motivation;science-related attitude;science-related career aspiration;structural equation model


Supported by : 한국과학창의재단


  1. Ames, C., & Archer, J., (1988). Achievement goals in the classroom: Students' learning strategies and motivation process. Journal of Educational Psychology, 80(3), 260-267.
  2. Archer, L., DeWitt, J., Osborne, J., Dillon, J., Willis, B., & Wong, B. (2010). "Doing" science versus "being" a scientist: Examining 10/11-year-old schoolchildren's constructions of science through the lens of identity. Science Education, 94(4), 617-639.
  3. Beyer, S., & Bowden, E. M. (1997). Gender differences in self-perceptions: Convergent evidence from three measures of accuracy and bias. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 23(2), 157-172.
  4. Boekaerts, M. (2007). Understanding students' affective processes in the classroom. In P. A. Schutz & R. Pekrun (Eds.), Emotion in Education (pp. 37-56). Amsterdam: Academic Press.
  5. Brownlow, S., Jacobi, T. & Rogers, M. (2000). Science anxiety as a function of gender and experience. Sex Roles, 42(1/2), 119-131.
  6. Chang, C.-Y., & Cheng, W.-Y. (2008). Science achievement and students’ self-confidence and interest in science: A Taiwanese representative sample study. International Journal of Science Education, 30(9), 1183-1200.
  7. Cho, J., Kim, S., Kim, M., Ok, H. J., Lim, H. M., & Son, S. K. (2012). Ways of Improving Korean Students' Affective Characteristics Based on PISA and TIMSS Results. (Research Report CRE 2012-4). Seoul: KICE.
  8. Choe, S., Kim, J., Park, S., Og, E., Kim, J. & Baek, H. (2013). Strategies for Improving the Affective Characteristics of Korean Students Based on the Results of PISA and TIMSS. (Research Report RRE 2013-18). Seoul: KICE.
  9. Coopersmith, S., & Feldman, R. (1974). Fostering positive self-concept and high self-esteem in the classroom. In R. H. Coop & K. P. White (Eds.), Psychological Concepts in the Classroom (pp. 192-225). New York, NY: Harper&Row.
  10. Debacker, T. K., & Nelson, R. M. (2000). Motivation to learn science: Differences related to gender, class type, and ability. The Journal of Educational Research, 93(4), 245-254.
  11. DeWitt, J., Osborne, J., Archer, L., Dillon, J., Willis, B., & Wong, B. (2013). Young children's aspirations in science: The unequivocal, the uncertain and the unthinkable. International Journal of Science Education, 35(6), 1037-1063.
  12. Elliot, A. J., & McGregor, H. A. (2001). A 2 ${\times}$2 achievement goal framework. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 80(3), 501-519.
  13. Falk, J. H., & Adelman, L. M. (2003). Investigating the impact of prior knowledge and interest on aquarium visitor learning. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 40(2), 163-176.
  14. Fortus, D. (2014). Attending to affect. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 51(7), 821-835.
  15. Fraser, B. J. (1978). Development of a test of science-related attitudes. Science Education, 62(4), 509-515.
  16. Fredrickson, B. L. (1998). What good are positive emotions? Review of General Psychology, 2(3), 300-319.
  17. Frenzel, A. C., Pekrun, R., & Goetz, T. (2007). Girls and mathematics-A "hopeless" issue? A control-value approach to gender differences in emotions towards mathematics. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 22(4), 497-514.
  18. Gardner, P. L. (1996). The dimensionality of attitude scales: A widely misunderstood idea. International Journal of Science Education, 18(8), 913-919.
  19. George, R. (2006). A cross-domain analysis of change in students' attitudes toward science and attitudes about the utility of science. International Journal of Science Education, 28(6), 571-589.
  20. Ginzberg, E. (1972). Toward a theory of occupational choice: A restatement. The Career Development Quarterly, 20(3), 2-9.
  21. Glaser-Zikuda, M., Stuchlikova, I., & Janik, T. (2013). Emotional aspects of learning and teaching: Reviewing the field- Discussing the issues. Orbis Scholae, 7(2), 7-22.
  22. Glynn, S. M., Brickman, P., Armstrong, N., & Taasoobshirazi, G. (2011). Science motivation questionnaire II: Validation with science majors and nonscience majors. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 48(10), 1159-1176.
  23. Glynn, S. M., Taasoobshirazi, G. & Brickman, P. (2007), Nonscience majors learning science: A theoretical model of motivation. Journal for Research in Science Teaching, 44(8), 1088-1107.
  24. Goetz, T., Frenzel, A. C., Pekrun, R., Hall, N. C., & Lüdtke, O. (2007). Between-and within-domain relations of students’ academic emotions. Journal of Educational Psychology, 99(4), 715-733.
  25. Gottfredson, L. S. (1981). Circumscription and compromise: A developmental theory of occupational aspirations. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 28(6). 545-579.
  26. Ha, M., Kim, M., Park, K., & Lee, J. (2012). The analysis of level and structure of natural science high school students' science motivation compared to general high school students'. Journal of the Korean Association for Science Education, 32(5), 866-878.
  27. Haney, R. E. (1964). The development of scientific attitudes. The Science Teacher, 31(12), 33-35.
  28. Hazari, Z., Sonnert, G., Sadler, P. M., & Shanahan, M.-C. (2010). Connecting high school physics experiences, outcome expectations, physics identity, and physics career choice: A gender study. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 47(8), 978-1003.
  29. Hidi, S., & Renninger, K. A. (2006). The four-phase model of interest development. Educational Psychologist, 41(2), 111-127.
  30. Hu, L. T., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 6(1), 1-55.
  31. Isen, A. M. (2000). Some perspectives on positive affect and self-regulation. Psychological Inquiry, 11(3), 184-187.
  32. Jansen, M., Schroeders, U., & Lüdtke, O. (2014). Academic self-concept in science: Multidimensionality, relations to achievement measures, and gender differences. Learning and Individual Differences, 30, 11-21.
  33. Jo, S. (2011). The mediation effect of cognitive self-regulated learning strategy in the relationships between self-efficacy and achievement in science. Journal of the Korean Association for Research in Science Education, 31(6), 958-969.
  34. Kang, E., Kim, C., Choe, S., Noh, T., Yoo, J., & Kim, H. (2015). The change of the relationship between Korean 4th graders' career aspirations in science and science identities. Journal of the Korean Association for Research in Science Education, 35(5), 841-856.
  35. Kang, M., Kim, Y., Lim, H., & Yoo, Y. (2014). Investigating the structural relationship among science experience, learning motivation, achievement and career orientation of high school students. Journal of Research in Curriculum Instruction, 18(3), 625-643.
  36. Keller, J. M. (1987). Development and use of the ARCS model of instructional design. Journal of Instructional Development, 10(3), 2-10.
  37. Kim, E. J. & Yang, M. H. (2011). An exploratory study on academic emotions of Korean students. The Korean Journal of Educational Psychology, 25(3), 501-521.
  38. Kim, J., Kim, M., & Hong, S. (2009). Thesis Writing with Structural Equation Model. Seoul: Communications Books, Inc.
  39. Kim, S., Jung, C., & Shin, D. (2015). Research trends of science related attitude in the Korean major journals of science education. Journal of Learner-Centered Curriculum and Instruction, 15(12), 179-200.
  40. KOFAC (2015). Development Research of Draft of 2015 Revised Subject Curriculum II - Science Curriculum. (Research Report BD15110002). Seoul: KOFAC.
  41. KOFST (2002). How to cope with the evasion of science and engineering. The Science & Technology, 35(7), 43-65.
  42. Kwak, Y. (2017). Exploration of features of Korean eighth grade students' attitudes toward science. Journal of the Korean Association for Research in Science Education, 37(1), 135-142.
  43. Kwon, C., Hur, M., Yang, I., & Kim, Y. (2004). A cause analysis of learning environment variables of change in science attitudes on elementary and secondary school students. Journal of the Korean Association for Research in Science Education, 24(6), 1256-1271.
  44. Lee, J. & Chung, Y. (2014). An analysis of structural relationship among the attitude toward science, science motivation, self-regulated learning strategy, and science achievement in middle school students. Journal of the Korean Association for Science Education, 34(5), 491-497.
  45. Lee, J., Nam, S., Lee, M., Lee, J., & Lee, S. (2009). Rosenberg’ self-esteem scale: Analysis of item-level validity. The Korean Journal of Counseling and Psychotherapy, 21(1), 173-189.
  46. Lee, J., Park, S., & Kim, Y. (2012). An analysis of educational factors on career choice of science-gifted students to science and technology bound universities. Journal of the Korean Association for Research in Science Education, 32(1), 15-29.
  47. Lee, M. & Kim, K. (2004). Relationship between attitudes toward science and science achievement. Journal of the Korean Association for Research in Science Education, 24(2), 399-407.
  48. Lent, R. W., Brown, S. D., & Hackett, G. (1994). Toward a unifying social cognitive theory of career and academic interest, choice, and performance. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 45(1), 79-122.
  49. Lim, H. (2014). The relationship between elementary students' perception of science learning and their perception of science career. The Journal of Korea Elementary Education, 25(3), 227-238.
  50. Limprecht, S., Janko, T., & Glaser-Zikuda, M. (2013). Achievement emotions of boys and girls in physics instruction: Does a portfolio make a difference? Orbis Scholae, 7(2) 43-66.
  51. Linnenbrink, E. A. (2007). The role of affect in student learning: A multi-dimensional approach to considering the interaction of affect, motivation, and engagement. In P. A. Schutz & R. Pekrun (Eds.), Emotion in Education (pp. 107-124). Amsterdam: Academic Press.
  52. Mallow, J. V. (1994). Gender-related science anxiety: A first binational study. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 3(4), 227-238.
  53. Mazlo, J., Dormedy, D. F., Neimoth-Anderson, J. D., Urlacher, T., Carson, G. A., & Kelter, P. B. (2002). Assessment of motivational methods in the general chemistry laboratory. Journal of College Science Teaching, 36, 318-321.
  54. McMillan, J. H., & Forsyth, D. R. (1991). What theories of motivation say about why learners learn. New Directions for Teaching and Learning, 45, 39-46.
  55. MOE (2016b). Result Announcement of PISA 2015. MOE Press Release (2016. 12. 6.).
  56. Murayama, K., Pekrun, R., Lichtenfeld, S. & vom Hofe, R. (2013), Predicting long-term growth in students' mathematics achievement: The unique contributions of motivation and cognitive strategies. Child Development, 84(4), 1475-1490.
  57. National Research Council (2011). A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
  58. Nieswandt, M. (2007). Student affect and conceptual understanding in learning chemistry. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 44(7), 908-937.
  59. Oliver, W. H., Pettus, W. C., & Hedin, B. A. (1990). Three studies of factors affecting the attitudes of blacks and females toward the pursuit of science and science-related careers. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 27(4), 289-314.
  60. Osborne, J. (2003). Attitudes towards science: A review of the literature and its implications. International Journal of Science Education, 25(9), 1049-1079.
  61. Parker, V. & Gerber, B. (2000). Effects of a science intervention program on middle-grade student achievement and attitudes. School Science and Mathematics, 100(5), 236-242.
  62. Pekrun, R. (2006). The control-value theory of achievement emotions: Assumptions, corollaries, and implications for educational research and practice. Educational Psychology Review, 18(4), 315-341.
  63. Pekrun, R., Frenzel, A. C., Goetz, T., & Perry, R. P. (2007). The control-value theory of achievement emotions: An integrative approach to emotions in education. In P. A. Schutz & R. Pekrun (Eds.), Emotion in Education (pp. 13-36). Amsterdam: Academic Press.
  64. Pekrun, R., Goetz, T., Frenzel, A. C., Barchfeld, P., & Perry, R. P. (2011). Measuring emotions in students' learning and performance: The achievement emotions questionnaire (AEQ). Contemporary Educational Psychology, 36(1), 36-48.
  65. Pekrun, R., Goetz, T., Titz, W., & Perry, R. P. (2002). Academic emotions in students’ self-regulated learning and achievement: A program of qualitative and quantitative research. Educational Psychologist, 37(2), 91-105.
  66. Pintrich, P. R., & Schunk, D. H. (1995). Motivation in Education: Theory, Research, and Applications. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
  67. Roberts, T. A. (1991). Gender and the influence of evaluations on self-assessments in achievement settings. Psychological Bulletin, 109(2), 297-308.
  68. Rosenberg, M. (1965). Society and the Adolescent Self-image. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
  69. Sayers, S. L., Curran, P. J., & Mueser, K. T. (1996). Factor structure and construct validity of the scale for the assessment of negative symptoms. Psychological Assessment, 8(3), 269-280.
  70. Schunk D. H., & Zimmerman B. J. (2006). Competence and control beliefs: Distinguishing the means and ends. In Alexander P. A., Winne P. H. (Eds.), Handbook of Educational Psychology (2nd ed., pp. 349?367). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
  71. Schutz, P. A., & Pekrun, R. (2007). Emotion in Education. Amsterdam: Academic Press.
  72. Shin, D., & Park, B. (2007). Research synthesis of gender differences in Korean science education journals. Journal of the Korean Earth Science Society, 28(4), 453-461.
  73. Shin, S., Ha, M., & Lee, J. (2016). The development and validation of instrument for measuring high school students’ STEM career motivation. Journal of the Korean Association for Research in Science Education, 36(1), 75-86.
  74. Shin, Y., Kang, H., Kwak, Y., Kim, H., Lee, S.-Y., & Lee, S. (2017a). A comparative analysis of the test tools in science-related affective domains. Biology Education, 45(1), 41-54.
  75. Shin, Y., Kwak, Y., Kim, H., Lee, S.-Y., Lee, S., & Kang, H. (2017b). Study on the development of test for indicators of positive experiences about science. Journal of the Korean Association for Research in Science Education, 37(2), 335-346.
  76. Skaalvik, E. M., & Skaalvik, S. (2004). Self-concept and self-efficacy: A test of the internal/external frame of reference model and predictions of subsequent motivation and achievement. Psychological Reports, 95, 1187-1202.
  77. Song, J., Pak, S.-J., & Jang, K.-A. (1992). Attitudes of boys and girls in elementary and secondary schools towards science lessons and scientists. Journal of the Korean Association for Research in Science Education, 12(3), 109-118.
  78. Tobin, K., Ritchie, S., Oakley, J., Mergard, V., & Hudson, P. (2013). Relationships between emotional climate and the fluency of classroom interactions. Learning Environments Research, 16(1), 71-89.
  79. Weinburgh, M. (1995). Gender differences in student attitudes toward science: A meta-analysis of the literature from 1970 to 1991. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 32(4), 387-398.
  80. Yoon, J. (2007). The analysis of causal relationship among students' science-related career. Journal of the Korean Association for Research in Science Education, 27(7), 570-582.
  81. Zembylas, M. (2005). Beyond teacher cognition and teacher beliefs: The value of the ethnography of emotions in teaching. International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education, 18(4), 465-487.
  82. Zimmerman, B. J., & Bandura, A. (1994). Impact of self-regulatory influences and writing course attainment. American Educational Research Journal, 31(4), 845-862.
  83. MOE (2016a). General Plans for Science Education (2016.2.). MOE.