Reinforcement of Rubber Properties by Carbon Black and Silica Fillers: A Review

  • Received : 2017.05.15
  • Accepted : 2017.05.25
  • Published : 2017.06.30


Enhancing the properties of rubber, such as the tensile strength, modulus, and wear abrasion, by the addition of carbon black and silica as fillers is very important for improving the performance of rubber products. In this review, we summarize the general features of 'the reinforcement of rubber by fillers' and the equations for representing the reinforcement phenomena. The rubber reinforcement was attributed to enhancement of the following: the rubber, bound rubber, formation of networks, and combination between rubber chains and silica followed by entanglement. The reinforcement capability of silica species with different surface and networked states demonstrated the importance of the connection between the silica particles and the rubber chains in achieving high reinforcement. The model involving combination followed by entanglement can provide a plausible explanation of the reinforcement of rubber by carbon black and silica because the combination facilitates the concentration of rubber chains near the filler particles, and entanglement of the rubber chains around the filler particles enforces the resistance against deformation and breakage of rubber compounds, resulting in high reinforcement.


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