Antihypertensive effect of ethanol extracts of Aralia elata in spontaneously hypertensive rats

선천성 고혈압 흰쥐에서 두릅 에탄올 추출물의 항고혈압 효과

  • Jin, Ju-Youn (College of Veterinary Medicine, Jeju National University) ;
  • Park, Eun-Hye (College of Veterinary Medicine, Jeju National University) ;
  • Jeon, Yoon-A (College of Veterinary Medicine, Jeju National University) ;
  • Lee, Young-Jae (College of Veterinary Medicine, Jeju National University)
  • 진주연 (제주대학교 수의과대학) ;
  • 박은혜 (제주대학교 수의과대학) ;
  • 전윤아 (제주대학교 수의과대학) ;
  • 이영재 (제주대학교 수의과대학)
  • Received : 2017.05.04
  • Accepted : 2017.07.14
  • Published : 2017.09.30


Antihypertensive effects of ethanol extracts of Aralia elata (Miq.) Seem. (AE) were investigated in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). SHR aged 14 weeks were treated for 8 weeks with AE (10 or 50 mg/kg/day) or amlodipine besylate (Am; 10 mg/kg/day) orally. Hypertension results in injury to several organs and can produce a significant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) content as a result of lipid peroxidation and endothelial dysfunction. In this study, oral administration of AE and Am significantly reduced systolic blood pressure, organ weight index, and MDA content in tissues but increased significantly the plasma nitrite and nitrate concentrations. The endothelium-dependent relaxant activities of acetylcholine ($10^{-10}-10^{-3}M$) in norepinephrine (NE)-precontracted aorta were increased in AE- and Am-treated rats. Particularly strong endothelium-dependent relaxant activities were observed in AE-treated (50 mg/kg) rats. The endothelium-independent relaxant activities of sodium nitroprusside ($10^{-10}-10^{-3}M$) in NE-precontracted aorta were not changed. The results of this study suggest that AE has both antihypertensive and end-organ protective effects in SHR.


Grant : 6개월 투여로 완치가 가능한 참두릅 유래 고혈압 개선제의 인체 적용 시험을 통한 개별 인정형 건강기능식품 제품화

Supported by : 중소기업기술정보진흥원


  1. Atlas SA. The renin-angiotensin aldosterone system: pathophysiological role and pharmacologic inhibition. J Manag Care Pharm 2007, 13 (8 Suppl B), S9-20.
  2. Cha JY, Ahn HY, Eom KE, Park BK, Jun BS, Cho YS. [Antioxidative activity of Aralia elata shoot and leaf extracts]. J Life Sci 2009, 19, 652-658. Korean.
  3. Chobanian AV, Bakris GL, Black HR, Cushman WC, Green LA, Izzo JL Jr, Jones DW, Materson BJ, Oparil S, Wright JT Jr, Roccella EJ; National High Blood Pressure Education Program Coordinating Committee. Seventh report of the joint national committee on prevention, detection, evaluation, and treatment of high blood pressure. Hypertension 2003, 42, 1206-1252.
  4. Choi J, Lee H, Kim Y, Kim B, Kim I, Lee C. [Effect of Cynanchi wilfordii Radix extracts on lipid compositions and blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats]. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 2012, 41, 345-350. Korean.
  5. de Cavanagh EMV, Ferder LF, Ferder MD, Stella IY, Toblli JE, Inserra F. Vascular structure and oxidative stress in saltloaded spontaneously hypertensive rats: effects of losartan and atenolol. Am J Hypertens 2010, 23, 1318-1325.
  6. Duarte J, Jimenez R, O'Valle F, Galisteo M, Perez-Palencia R, Vargas F, Perez-Vizcaino F, Zarzuelo A, Tamargo J. Protective effects of the flavonoid quercetin in chronic nitric oxide deficient rats. J Hypertens 2002, 20, 1843-1854.
  7. Forstermann U, Sessa WC. Nitric oxide synthases: regulation and function. Eur Heart J 2012, 33, 829-837
  8. Gielis JF, Lin JY, Wingler K, Van Schil PEY, Schmidt HH, Moens AL. Pathogenetic role of eNOS uncoupling in cardiopulmonary disorders. Free Radic Biol Med 2011, 50, 765-776.
  9. Glover M, Hebert VY, Nichols K, Xue SY, Thibeaux TM, Zavecz JA, Dugas TR. Overexpression of mitochondrial antioxidant manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) provides protection against AZT- or 3TC-induced endothelial dysfunction. Antiviral Res 2014, 111, 136-142
  10. Groholm T, Finckenberg P, Palojoki E, Saraste A, Backlund T, Eriksson A, Laine M, Mervaala E, Tikkanen I. Cardioprotective effects of vasopeptidase inhibition vs. angiotensin type 1-receptor blockade in spontaneously hypertensive rats on a high salt diet. Hypertens Res 2004, 27, 609-618.
  11. Hamza SM, Dyck JRB. Systemic and renal oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of hypertension, modulation of long-term control of arterial blood pressure by resveratrol. Front Physiol 2014, 5, 292.
  12. Hernandez DE, Hancke, JL, Wikman G. Evaluation of the anti-ulcer and antisecretory activity of extracts of Aralia elata root and Schizandra chinensis fruit in the rat. J Ethnopharmacol 1988, 23, 109-114.
  13. Ignarro LJ. Endothelium-derived nitric oxide: actions and properties. FASEB J 1989, 3, 31-36.
  14. Jeon BH, Kim HS, Chang SJ. [Effect of saponin and nonsaponin of Panax ginseng on the blood pressure in the renovascular hypertensive rats]. J Ginseng Res 1999, 23, 81-87. Korean.
  15. Kim JS, Kim MJ, Park MH, Ryu BM, Moon GS. [Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition and antihypertensive effects of Phyllostachys pubescens culm extracts in spontaneously hypertensive rats]. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 2008, 37, 27-34. Korean.
  16. Kim YH, Im JG. [Effect of saponin from the shoot of Aralia elata in normal rats and streptozotocin induced diabetic rats]. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 1999, 28, 912-916. Korean.
  17. Kunsch C, Medford RM. Oxidative stress as a regulator of gene expression in the vasculature. Circ Res 1999, 85, 753-766.
  18. Lee CH, Yi HS, Kim JE, Heo SK, Cha CM, Won CW, Park SD. [Anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effect of fractionated extracts of Smilacis Glabrae Rhizoma in human umbilical vein endothelial cell]. Korea J Herbol 2009, 24, 39-50. Korean.
  19. Lee UB, Jung CS. [Pharmacological studies on root bark extract of Aralia elata. Antigastritic and antiulcerative effects in rats]. Yakhakhoe Chi 1993, 37, 581-590. Korean.
  20. Ma SJ, Ko BS, Park KH. [Isolation of 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid with antimicrobial activity from bark of Aralia elata]. Korean J Food Sci Thechnol 1995, 27, 807-812. Korean.
  21. Miranda KM, Espey MG, Wink DA. A rapid, simple spectrophotometric method for simultaneous detection of nitrate and nitrite. Nitric Oxide 2001, 5, 62-71.
  22. Montezano AC, Touyz RM. Molecular mechanisms of hypertension-reactive oxygen species and antioxidants: a basic science update for the clinician. Can J Cardiol 2012, 28, 288-295.
  23. Perez-Vizcaino F, Duarte J, Jimenez R, Santos-Buelga C, Osuna A. Antihypertensive effects of the flavonoid quercetin. Pharmacol Rep 2009, 61, 67-75.
  24. Rodrigo R, Prat H, Passalacqua W, Araya J, Guichard C, Bachler JP. Relationship between oxidative stress and essential hypertension. Hypertens Res 2007, 30, 1159-1167.
  25. Saito S, Ebashi J, Sumita S, Furumoto T, Nagamura Y, Nishida K, Isiguro I. Comparison of cytoprotective effects of saponins isolated from leaves of Aralia elata Seem. (Araliaceae) with synthesized bisdesmosides of oleanoic acid and hederagenin on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic injury. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 1993, 41, 1395-1401.
  26. Shin KH. [Effects of Araliaceae on lipid levels of plasma and liver in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats]. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 2006, 35, 1172-1177. Korean.
  27. Siegel D, Lopez J, Meier J. Pharmacologic treatment of hypertension in the department of veterans affairs during 1995 and 1996. Am J Hypertens 1998, 11, 1271-1278.
  28. Suh SJ, Jin UH, Kim KW, Son JK, Lee SH, Son KH, Chang HW, Lee YC, Kim CH. Triterpenoid saponin, oleanolic acid 3-O-${\beta}$-D-glucopyranosyl(1${\rightarrow}$3)-${\alpha}$-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1${\rightarrow}$2)-${\alpha}$-L-arabinopyranoside (OA) from Aralia elata inhibits LPS-induced nitric oxide production by down-regulated NF-eB in raw 264.7 cells. Arch Biochem Biophys 2007, 467, 227-233.
  29. Swales JD. Aetiology of hypertension. Br J Anaesth 1984, 56, 677-688.
  30. Waeber B, Brunner HR. Rationale for the use of very-low-dose combinations as first-line treatment of hypertension. J Hypertens Suppl 2001, 19, S3-8.
  31. Yoshikawa M, Harada E, Matsuda H, Murakami T, Yamahara J, Murakami N. Elatosides A and B, potent inhibitors of ethanol absorption in rats from the bark of Aralia elata Seem.: the structure-activity relationships of oleanolic acid oligoglycosides. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 1993, 41, 2069-2071.
  32. Yoshikawa M, Murakami T, Harada E, Murakami N, Yamahara J, Matsuda H. Bioactive saponins and glycosides. VI. Elatosides A and B, potent inhibitors of ethanol absorption, from the bark of Aralia elata Seem. (Araliaceae), the structurerequirement in oleanolic acid glucuronide-saponins for the inhibitory activity. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 1996, 44, 1915-1922.
  33. Zhang M, Liu G, Tang S, Song S, Yamashita K, Manabe M, Kodama H. Effect of five triterpenoid compounds from the buds of Aralia elata on stimulus-induced superoxide generation, tyrosyl phosphorylation and translocation of cytosolic compounds to the cell membrane in human neutrophils. Planta Med 2006, 72, 1216-1222.
  34. Zingarelli B, Szabo C, Salzman AL. Blockade of poly(ADP-ribose) synthetase inhibits neutrophil recruitment, oxidant generation, and mucosal injury in murine colitis. Gastroenterology 1999, 116, 335-345.