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Exposure Factor Development of Children's Hand and Mouthing Activities Using Videotaping Methodology and Analysis of Influential Factors

어린이들의 비의도적 행위에 대한 노출계수 개발 및 영향요인 분석

  • Jung, Dayoung (Environmental Health Research and Risk Assessment Division, National Institute of Environment Research) ;
  • Yoon, Hyojung (Environmental Health Research and Risk Assessment Division, National Institute of Environment Research) ;
  • Yang, Wonho (Department of Occupational Health, Daegu Catholic University) ;
  • Kim, Taksoo (Environmental Health Research and Risk Assessment Division, National Institute of Environment Research) ;
  • Seo, JungKwan (Environmental Health Research and Risk Assessment Division, National Institute of Environment Research) ;
  • Heo, Jung (Environmental Health Research and Risk Assessment Division, National Institute of Environment Research) ;
  • Ryu, Hyunsoo (Department of Occupational Health, Daegu Catholic University) ;
  • Kim, Sunshin (Department of Occupational Health, Daegu Catholic University) ;
  • Choi, Min-Ji (Department of Occupational Health, Daegu Catholic University)
  • 정다영 (국립환경과학원 환경건강연구부) ;
  • 윤효정 (국립환경과학원 환경건강연구부) ;
  • 양원호 (대구가톨릭대학교 산업보건학과) ;
  • 김탁수 (국립환경과학원 환경건강연구부) ;
  • 서정관 (국립환경과학원 환경건강연구부) ;
  • 허정 (국립환경과학원 환경건강연구부) ;
  • 류현수 (대구가톨릭대학교 산업보건학과) ;
  • 김순신 (대구가톨릭대학교 산업보건학과) ;
  • 최민지 (대구가톨릭대학교 산업보건학과)
  • Received : 2017.10.12
  • Accepted : 2017.10.23
  • Published : 2017.10.31

Abstract

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to develop exposure factor data for the Korean child population, with a specific focus on behavior characteristics such as hand-to-mouth and object-to-mouth and an analysis of influential factors. Methods: We divided environments into two places, which were house/indoor and nursery. A total of 400 children (house/indoor) and a total of 162 children (nursery) were recruited from the cities of Seoul, Incheon, Daegu, and Gwangju. The children were divided into two groups. We conducted direct measurement by using one hour of videotaping alongside questionnaire surveys. This was performed to calculate behavior rates, such as how many children perform hand-to-mouth and object-to-mouth behaviors. Results: The respective average frequencies of hand-to-mouth and object-to-mouth were $0.8{\pm}2.23$ and $0.82{\pm}2.64contacts/hr$ for house/indoor. The respective average frequencies of hand-to-mouth and object-to-mouth were $2.87{\pm}4.63$ and $1.47{\pm}3.84contacts/hr$ in the nursery group. For the mouthing participants, the average frequencies of hand-to-mouth and object-to-mouth were 3.31 and 3.20 contacts/hr in house, and 4.80 and 3.26 in nursery. Compared to other countries such as the USA, the frequencies of hand-to-mouth and object-to-mouth behaviors found in this study were relatively lower. Conclusions: Children have the potential for exposure to toxic substances through non-dietary ingestion pathways by mouthing objects or their fingers. In this study, the mouthing frequency was relatively lower than that found in Western countries. This can be explained that mouthing behaviour may be affected by culture and lifestyle characteristics.

Keywords

Children;hand-to-mouth;object-to-mouth;exposure factors;exposure assessment

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