- Volume 20 Issue 3
DOI QR Code
A Review on Venom Enzymes Neutralizing Ability of Secondary Metabolites from Medicinal Plants
- Singh, Pushpendra (Department of Biological Science and Engineering, Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology) ;
- Yasir, Mohammad (Department of Biological Science and Engineering, Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology) ;
- Hazarika, Risha (Department of Biological Science and Engineering, Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology) ;
- Sugunan, Sunisha (Department of Biological Science and Engineering, Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology) ;
- Shrivastava, Rahul (Department of Biological Science and Engineering, Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology)
- Received : 2017.09.05
- Accepted : 2017.09.25
- Published : 2017.09.30
Objectives: Medicinal plants are vital sources of bioactive compounds that are useful for the treatment of patients with snake bites or are indirectly applicable for boosting the effects of conventional serum therapy. These plants are being used traditionally by local healers and tribes for the treatment of patients with snake bites and therefore can be used as an alternative against snake envenomation. Scientifically, using the secondary metabolites of plants to neutralize venom enzymes has an extra benefit of being based on traditional knowledge; also, the use of such metabolites for the treatment of patients with snake bites is cheaper and the treatment can be started sooner. Methods: All the available information on various secondary metabolites exhibiting venom neutralizing ability were collected via electronic search (using Google books, Pubmed, SciFinder, Scirus, Google Scholar, and Web of Science) and articles of peer-reviewed journals. Results:Recent interest in different plant has focused on isolating and identifying of different phytoconstituents that exhibit Phospholipase A2 activity and other venom enzyme neutralizing ability. In this support convincing evidence in experimental animal models are available. Conclusion: Secondary metabolites are naturally present, have no side effect, are stable for a long time, can be easily stored, and can neutralize a wide range of snake enzymes, such as phospholipase A2, hyaluronidase, protease, L-amino acid oxidase, 5'nucleotidase, etc. The current review presents a compilation of important plant secondary metabolites that are effective against snake venom due to enzyme neutralization.
Supported by : Council of Scientific and Industrial Research
- Gomes A, Das R, Sarkhel S, Mishra R, Mukherjee S, Bhattacharya S, et al. Herbs and herbal constituents active against snake bite. Indian J Exp Biol. 2010;48(9):865-78.
- Samy RP, Gopalakrishnakone P, Chow VTK. Therapeutic application of natural inhibitors against snake venom phospholipase A2. Bioinformation. 2012;8(1):48-57. https://doi.org/10.6026/97320630008048
- Tomaz MA, Patrao-Neto FC, Melo PA. Plant compounds with antiophidic activities, their discovery history and current and proposed applications. Plant Toxins. 2016;1-16.
- Dhananjaya BL, Zameer F, Girish KS, D'Souza CJ. Anti-venom potential of aqueous extract of stem bark of Mangifera indica L. against Daboia russelii (Russell's viper) venom. Indian J Biochem Biophys. 2011;48(3):175-83.
- Gopi K, Renu K, Jayaraman G. Inhibition of Naja naja venom enzymes by the methanolic extract of Leucas aspera and its chemical profile by GC-MS. Toxicology Reports. 2014;1:667-73. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.toxrep.2014.08.012
- Shrikanth VM, Janardhan B, More SS, Muddapur UM, Mirajkar KK. In vitro anti snake venom potential of Abutilon indicum Linn leaf extracts against Echis carinatus (Indian saw scaled viper). J Pharmacogn Phytochem. 2014;3(1):111-7.
- Soares AM, Ticli FK, Marcussi S, Lourenço MV, Januario AH, Sampaio SV, et al. Medicinal plants with inhibitory properties against snake venoms. Curr Med Chem. 2005;12(22):2625-41. https://doi.org/10.2174/092986705774370655
- Singh P, Yasir M, Tripathi MK, Shrivastava R. A review on in vitro screening assay for inhibitory effect against venom enzymes using medicinal plants. Toxicol Int. 2017;23(3):207-11.
- Ruppelt BM, Goncalves LC, Pereira NA. Abordagem farmacologicas de plantas recomendadas pela medicina folclorica como antiofídicas. II. bloqueio da atividade de permeabilidade capilar ena letalidade do veneno de jararaca (Bothrops jararaca). Rev Bras Farm. 1990;71(3):57-8.
- Pereira BM, Goncalves LC, Pereira NA. Abordagem farmacologica de plantas recomendadas pela medicina folclorica como antiofidicas III-Atividade antiedematogenica. Rev Bras Farm. 1992;73:85-6.
- Mukherjee AK, Doley R, Saikia D. Isolation of a snake venom phospholipase A2 (PLA2) inhibitor (AIPLAI) from leaves of Azadirachta indica (Neem): Mechanism of PLA2 inhibition by AIPLAI in vitro condition. Toxicon. 2008;51(8):1548-53. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2008.03.021
- Vishwanath BS, Gowda TV. Interaction of aristolochic acid with Vipera russelli phospholipase A2: Its effect on enzymatic and pathological activities. Toxicon. 1987;25(9):929-37. https://doi.org/10.1016/0041-0101(87)90155-3
- de Almeida L, Cintra AC, Veronese EL, Nomizo A, Franco JJ, Arantes EC, et al. Anticrotalic and antitumoral activities of gel filtration fractions of aqueous extract from Tabernaemontana catharinensis (Apocynaceae). Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2004;137(1):19-27. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cca.2003.10.012
- Mors WB, Nascimento MC, Pereira BM, Pereira NA. Plant natural products active against snake bite-the molecular approach. Phytochemistry. 2000;55(6):627-42. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0031-9422(00)00229-6
- Gowda TV. In: venom phospholipase A2 enzymes: structure, function and mechanism. NewYork: John Wile & Sons; 1997. 205 p.
- Ticli FK, Hage LI, Cambraia RS, Pereira PS, Magro AJ, Fontes MR, et al. Rosmarinic acid, a new snake venom phospholipase A2 inhibitor from Cordia verbenacea (Boraginaceae): antiserum action potentiation and molecular interaction. Toxicon. 2005;46(3):318-27. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2005.04.023
- Aung HT, Nikai T, Niwa M, Takaya Y. Rosmarinic acid in Argusia argentea inhibits snake venom-induced hemorrhage. J Nat Med. 2010;64(4):482-6. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11418-010-0428-3
- Strauch MA, Tomaz MA, Monteiro-Machado M, Ricardo HD, Cons BL, Fernandes FF, et al. Antiophidic activity of the extract of the Amazon plant Humirianthera ampla and constituents. J Ethanopharmacol. 2013;145(1):50-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2012.10.033
- Raghavamma STV, Rao NR, Rao GD. Inhibitory potential of important phytochemicals from Pergularia daemia (Forsk.) chiov., on snake venom (Naja naja). J Genet Eng Biotechnol. 2016;14(1):211-7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jgeb.2015.11.002
- Torres MC, Jorge RJB, Ximenes RM, Alves NT, Santos JV, Marinho AD, et al. Solanidane and iminosolanidane alkaloids from Solanum campaniforme. Phytochemistry. 2013;96:457-64. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phytochem.2013.09.007
- Gopi K, Anbarasu K, Renu K, Jayanthi S, Vishwanath BS, Jayaraman G. Quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside from Euphorbia hirta protects against snake venom induced toxicity. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2016;1860(7):1528-40. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbagen.2016.03.031
- Pereanez JA, Patino AC, Nunez V, Osorio E. The biflavonoid morelloflavone inhibits the enzymatic and biological activities of a snake venom phospholipase A2. Chem Biol Interact. 2014;220:94-101. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cbi.2014.06.015
- Melo PA, Pinheiro DA, Ricardo HD, Fernandes FF, Tomaz MA, El-Kik CZ, et al. Ability of a synthetic coumestan to antagonize bothrops snake venom activities. Toxicon. 2010;55(2-3):488-96. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2009.09.021
- Carvalho BM, Santos JD, Xavier BM, Almeida JR, Resende LM, Martins W, et al. Snake venom PLA2s inhibitors isolated from Brazilian plants: synthetic and natural molecules. Biomed Res Int. 2013;2013:DOI:10.1155/2013/153045. https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/153045
- Núnez V, Castro V, Murillo R, Ponce-Soto LA, Merfort I, Lomonte B. Inhibitory effects of Piper umbellatum and Piper peltatum extracts towards myotoxic phospholipases A2 from Bothrops snake venoms: isolation of 4-nerolidylcatechol as active principle. Phytochemistry. 2005;66(9):1017-25. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phytochem.2005.03.026
- Nimmy C, Sapna M, Prerana S. Review on medicinal plants having antivenom activity. International Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology. 2016;6(1):1-4.
- Venkatesan C, Sarathi M, Balasubramanian G, Thomas J, Balachander V, Babu VS, et al. Antivenom activity of triterpenoid (C34H68O2) from Leucas aspera Linn. against Naja naja naja venom induced toxicity: antioxidant and histological study in mice. Hum Exp Toxicol. 2014;33(4):336-59. https://doi.org/10.1177/0960327113494901
- Luiz AP, Moura JD, Meotti FC, Guginski G, Guimaraes CLS, Azevedo MS, et al. Antinociceptive action of ethanolic extract obtained from roots of Humirianthera ampla miers. J Ethanopharmacol. 2007;114(3):355-63. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2007.08.016
- Fernandes FF, Tomaz MA, El-Kik CZ, Monteiro-Machado M, Strauch MA, Cons BL, et al. Counteraction of Bothrops snake venoms by Combretum leprosum root extract and arjunolic acid. J Ethanopharmacol. 2014;155(1):552-62. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2014.05.056
- Gopi K, Renu K, Sannanaik Vishwanath B, Jayaraman G. Protective effect of Euphorbia hirta and its components against snake venom induced lethality. J Ethanopharmacol. 2015;165:180-90. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2015.02.044
- Alam MI, Auddy B, Gomes A. Viper venom neutralization by Indian medicinal plant (Hemidesmus indicus and Pluchea indica) root extracts. Phytother Res. 1996;10(1):58-61. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1099-1573(199602)10:1<58::AID-PTR775>3.0.CO;2-F