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Anti-Toxoplasma Effects of Methanol Extracts of Feijoa sellowiana, Quercus castaneifolia, and Allium paradoxum

  • Ebrahimzadeh, Mohammad Ali (Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, School of Pharmacy, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences) ;
  • Taheri, Mohammad Mohammad (Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, School of Pharmacy, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences) ;
  • Ahmadpour, Ehsan (Infectious and Tropical Diseases Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences) ;
  • Montazeri, Mahbobeh (Toxoplasmosis Research Center, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences) ;
  • Sarvi, Shahabeddin (Toxoplasmosis Research Center, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences) ;
  • Akbari, Mohammad (Toxoplasmosis Research Center, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences) ;
  • Daryani, Ahmad (Toxoplasmosis Research Center, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences)
  • Received : 2017.05.18
  • Accepted : 2017.08.30
  • Published : 2017.09.30

Abstract

Objectives: The currently available agents for use against toxoplasmosis have serious limitations. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the anti-Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) activities of methanol extracts of Feijoa sellowiana (F. sellowiana) (leaves and fruits), Quercus castaneifolia (Q. castaneifolia) (fruits), and Allium paradoxum (A. paradoxum) (leaves) in vitro and in vivo. Methods: Vero cells were treated with different concentrations (from 0 to $400{\mu}g/mL$) of the above extracts or with pyrimethamine at a dose of 50 mg/mL (positive control). Then, the viabilities of the T. gondii-infected cells were measured by using colorimetric MTT (3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl) 2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assays. In addition, the survival rates of mice acutely infected with $2{\times}10^4$ RH strain tachyzoites of T. gondii were examined in vivo after intraperitoneal injection of the extracts at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg/day for 5 days. Results: In the in vitro anti- T. gondii assay, the $IC_{50}$ values were 12.77, 180.2, 74.73, 213.2 and $163.8{\mu}g/mL$, and the selectivity indices were 6.05, 1.31, 0.35, 0.69 and 1.30 for the F. sellowiana (leaves and fruits), Q. castaneifolia, and A. paradoxum extracts and pyrimethamine, respectively. Moreover, the mice treated with F. sellowiana (leaves and fruits) achieved better results in terms of survival than the others (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The results of the current study indicate that methanol extract of F. sellowiana has significant anti-Toxoplasma activity. Further study should be conducted to investigate the potential bioactivity of this extract through bioactivity-guided fractionation.

Acknowledgement

Supported by : Mazandaran University of Medical Science

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