Exploration on Thinking Styles in Engineering Students

공과대학생의 사고양식 탐색

  • Yun, Kyung-Mi (Office for Education Accreditation, Pusan National University) ;
  • Hwang, Soonhee (Department of Liberal Arts, Hongik University)
  • Received : 2017.08.21
  • Accepted : 2017.09.19
  • Published : 2017.09.30


This research aims to explore characteristics of engineering students' thinking styles compared with those of undergraduate students in Korea. For this, we investigated whether there were differences of thinking styles in undergraduates according to majors and gender. 'Thinking styles', one individual-difference variable, has received particular attention in recent years. Styles are not abilities but rather refer to individuals' preferred way of applying their abilities in cognitive tasks(Sternberg, 1988). There has been much research(domestic and foreign) about thinking styles and their related factors. However, to date, little attention has been paid to engineering students' thinking styles, and few studies have dealt with them together with undergraduate students' of various majors. This study was conducted with a total of 865 students from 3 universities, and thinking styles have been measured online. Our findings show that firstly, there were significant differences in undergraduate students' thinking styles by majors. Engineering students scored significantly higher in external style, students majoring in humanities scored higher in executive, hierarchical and conservative styles, and students majoring in arts scored higher in legislative, internal and liberal styles. Second, there was a significant difference in students' thinking styles by gender. Male students scored significantly higher than females in judicial, global and external styles. Whereas female students scored higher than males in hierarchical and internal styles. Third, there was a significant difference in engineering students' thinking styles by gender. Male engineering students scored significantly higher than females in judicial and monarchic styles. Whereas female engineering students scored significantly higher in hierarchical styles. Based on these findings, it is expected to apply thinking styles to develop related courses as well as programs for engineering students.


Thinking Styles;Engineering Students;Differences by Gender & Majors;External;Judicial;Hierarchical Styles


Supported by : 한국연구재단


  1. Olsen, C.L.(1979). Practical considerations in choosing a MANOVA test static: A rejoinder to Stevens. Psychological Bulletin 86, 11350-1352.
  2. Sternberg, R.J.(1988). Mental self-government: A theory of intellectual styles and their development. Human development, 31(4), 197-224. https://doi.org/10.1159/000275810
  3. Sternberg, R.J.(1994 a). Allowing for thinking styles. Educational leadership, 52(3), 36-40.
  4. Sternberg, R.J.(1994 b). Thinking styles: Theory and assessment at the interface between intelligence and personality, in Sternberg, Robert J. (Ed); Ruzgis, Patricia (Ed), Personality and intelligence (pp. 169-187). New York, NY, US: Cambridge University Press.
  5. Sternberg, R.J.(1999). Thinking styles. Cambridge University Press.
  6. Sternberg, R.J. & Grigorenko, E.L.(1995). Styles of thinking in the school, European Journal for High Ability 6, 201-219. https://doi.org/10.1080/0937445940060211
  7. Sternberg, R.J. & Wagner, R.K.(1991). MSG thinking styles inventory: Manual. Star Mountain Projects.
  8. Zhang, L.F.(1999). Further cross-cultural validation of the theory of mental self-government. The Journal of Psychology 133(2), 165-181. https://doi.org/10.1080/00223989909599731
  9. Zhang, L.F.(2000). Thinking styles and personality types revisited. Personality and individual Differences, 31(6), 883-894.
  10. Zhang, L.F.(2001). Do thinking styles contribute to academic achievement beyond self-rated abilities?, The Journal of Psychology, 135(6), 621-637. https://doi.org/10.1080/00223980109603724
  11. Zhang, L.F. & Huang, J.(2001). Thinking styles and the five factor model of personality. European Journal of Personality, 15(6), 465-476. https://doi.org/10.1002/per.429
  12. Zhang, L.F. & Sternberg, R.J.(2002). Thinking styles and teachers' characteristics. International Journal of Psychology, 37(1), 3-12. https://doi.org/10.1080/00207590143000171
  13. 정정호.장동련(2014). 창의적 디자인융합인재의 사고양식 유형. 디자인학연구, 27(2), 215-229.
  14. 최지혜(2003). 사고양식, 의사결정, 창의적 인성 간의 관계 연구, 숙명여자대학교 석사학위논문.
  15. 한기순.배미란(2004). 과학영재와 일반 학생들 간의 사고양식 과 지능 및 창의성 간의 관계 비교. 교육심리연구, 18(2), 49-68.
  16. 황순희(2017). 공과대학생의 팀워크 역량과 사고양식의 관계. 공학교육연구, 20(2), 39-49.
  17. 황순희.윤경미(2016). 공과대학생의 의사소통능력과 사고양식의 관계. 교양교육연구, 10(3), 515-548.
  18. Cheung, C., Rudowicz, E., Yue, X., & Kwan, A.S.(2003). Creativity of university students: What is the impact of field and year study?. Journal of creative behavior 37(1), 42-63. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.2162-6057.2003.tb00825.x
  19. Cilliers, C.D., & Sternberg, R.J.(2001). Thinking Styles: Implications for optimising learning and teaching in university education. South African Journal of Higher Education, 15(1), 13-24.
  20. Dai, D.Y., & Feldhusen, J.F.(1999). A validation study of the thinking styles inventory: Implications for gifted education. Roeper Review, 21(4), 302-307. https://doi.org/10.1080/02783199909553981
  21. Jacobson, C.M.(1993). Cognitive styles of creativity: Relations of scores on the Kirton Adaptation-Innovation Inventory and the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator among managers in the USA. Psychological Reports 72, 1131-1138. https://doi.org/10.2466/pr0.1993.72.3c.1131
  22. Kim, J. & Michael, W.B.(1995). The relationship of creativity measures to school achievement and to preferred learning and thinking style in a sample of Korean high school students. Educational and Psychological Measurement 55(1), 60-74. https://doi.org/10.1177/0013164495055001006
  23. O'Hara, L.A., & Sternberg, R.J.(2001). It doesn't hurt to ask: Effects of instructions to be creative, practical, or analytical on essay-writing performance and their interaction with students' thinking styles. Creativity Research Journal 13(2), 197-210. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15326934CRJ1302_7
  24. 김소연(2000). Sternberg의 지능 및 사고양식 이론의 타당화, 숙명여자대학교, 석사학위논문.
  25. 김윤옥(2010). 학습장애 학생의 사고양식 분석. 학습전략중재 연구, 1(1), 23-38.
  26. 나동진.김진철(2003). 과학영재의 사고양식과 학업성취의 관계. 열린교육연구, 11(1), 275-291.
  27. 박중길(2007). 사고양식으로 예측한 무용과 대학생의 비판적 사고성향. 한국체육학회지, 46(6), 407-419.
  28. 김영채.정미선.정세영.정혜인(2011). 창의적 문제해결 스타일-집단내 및 집단간 특성과 스타일 분포의 정규, 사고개발, 7(1), 1-27.
  29. 강승희.김대현(2006). 사고양식을 통한 대학생의 비판적 사고 성향의 구인 특성 이해. 중등교육연구, 54(3), 1-25.
  30. 서미옥(2003). 성별과 전공계열에 따른 예비교사의 사고양식 과 창의적 인성의 관계. 교육학연구, 41(4), 259-283.
  31. 신명희.서은희(2003). 인지양식유형과 전공계열 및 학업적응과 의 관계. 교육학연구, 41(1), 139-154.
  32. 윤경미.김정섭(2008). 대학생의 리더십 특성에 관한 연구: 성,학년, 사고양식을 중심으로. 청소년학연구, 15(7), 319-345.
  33. 윤경미.황순희(2017). 공과대학생의 일상적 창의성과 사고양식의 관계. 교양교육연구, 11(2), 413-448.
  34. 윤미선(1998). 사고양식과 학업성취에 관한 연구: Sternberg의 정신자치제 이론을 중심으로, 고려대학교 석사학위논문.
  35. 윤미선(2003). 사고양식에 따른 학습동기 및 교과흥미가 학업성취에 미치는 영향, 고려대학교 박사학위논문.
  36. 윤미선.김성일(2004). 중,고생의 학업성취 결정요인으로서 사고양식, 학습동기, 교과흥미, 학습 전략 간의 관계모형. 교육심리연구, 18(2), 161-180.
  37. 이순우.서민화(2010). 직업성격․직업환경유형과 사고양식과의 관계. 진로교육연구, 23(2), 57-75.
  38. 이정규.김진철(2005). 사고양식과 학업성취 간의 관계구조에서 특목고와 일반고의 차이. 교육방법연구, 17(1), 1-17.
  39. Zhu, Ch.. & Zhang, L.F.(2011). Thinking styles and conceptions of creativity among university students, Educational Psychology 31(3), 361-375. https://doi.org/10.1080/01443410.2011.557044