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Perioperative Medical Complications after Posterior Approach Spinal Instrumentation Surgery for Osteoporotic Vertebral Collapse: A Comparative Study in Patients with Primary Osteoporosis and Those with Secondary Osteoporosis

  • Received : 2016.12.13
  • Accepted : 2017.03.19
  • Published : 2017.10.31

Abstract

Study Design: A retrospective comparative study. Purpose: To compare perioperative medical complications after posterior approach spinal instrumentation surgery for osteoporotic vertebral collapse (OVC) between patients with primary osteoporosis and those with secondary osteoporosis. Overview of Literature: With increased aging of society, the demand for instrumentation surgery for an osteoporotic spine has been increasing. However, no studies have compared the rates or severities of perioperative complications after spinal instrumentation surgery between patients with primary osteoporosis and those with secondary osteoporosis. Methods: Ninety-one patients with OVC aged ${\geq}50years$ (23 males and 68 females) who underwent posterior approach vertebral replacement with cages or posterior spinal fusion combined with vertebroplasty were divided into primary (n=56) and secondary (n=35) osteoporosis groups. Bone mineral density (BMD), osteoporosis treatment prior to OVC, operative invasiveness, and perioperative medical complications were compared. Results: Diabetes mellitus (51.4%) was the most common cause of secondary osteoporosis, followed by glucocorticoid use (22.9%). No significant differences were seen in terms of age, gender, BMD, osteoporosis treatment, or operative invasiveness, including the number of levels fused, estimated blood loss, and number of patients requiring transfusion. No significant difference in the incidence of perioperative complications were observed between the primary and secondary osteoporosis groups (16.1% vs. 22.9%). However, surgical site infection (SSI) was significantly more frequently seen in the secondary osteoporosis group (11.4%) than in the primary osteoporosis group (1.8%; p<0.05). One patient in the secondary osteoporosis group developed methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection that ultimately required instrument removal. Conclusions: The overall incidence of perioperative medical complications after posterior approach spinal instrumentation surgery for OVC was comparable between the primary and secondary osteoporosis groups under conditions of similar background characteristics and operative invasiveness. However, SSI (particularly more severe cases) occurred more frequently in patients with secondary osteoporosis.