DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

WHEN SHAKESPEARE TRAVELS ALONG THE SILK ROAD: TARDID, AN IRANIAN ADAPTATION OF HAMLET

  • Published : 2017.06.15

Abstract

Media has become an inseparable companion of $21^{st}$ century culture, exerting immense influence on our daily lives. This article aims to reveal how cultural aspects and media in a particular part of the Silk Road have adapted Western cannons. Iran has redefined and transformed Western culture through the modern Silk Road by the method of cinematic adaptation. Karim-Masihi employs the general plot of Hamlet, the well-known drama by William Shakespeare (1564-1616), in his movie Tardid (Doubt 2009); however, he transforms some of the characters to reflect the current socio-cultural aspects of Iranian society. One of the characters is named Siavash, whose life is similar to Hamlet. In passivity, he awaits his imminent death and other tragic consequences. Yet, the movie ends differently. It is not an Elizabethan tragedy in a strict sense, although the final scenes abound with corpses. This article aims to find the similarities and differences between the two works, while reasoning the significance of the alterations. It concludes with how different cultures react to the same themes.

References

  1. Brown, William. 2011. "Cease Fire: Rethinking Iranian Cinema through Its Mainstream." Third Text, 25. 3: 335-41. https://doi.org/10.1080/09528822.2011.573320
  2. Camp, Gerald M. 1969. "Shakespeare on Film." Journal of Aesthetic Education, 3.1: 107-120. https://doi.org/10.2307/3331467
  3. Cartmell, Deborah. 2006. "Film as the New Shakespeare and Film on Shakespeare: Reversing the Shakespeare/Film Trajectory." Literature Compass, 3.5: 1150-1159. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-4113.2006.00375.x
  4. Cinemakhabar. 2014. "Darkhast-e Beyzayi az Varuzh Karim Masihi/ [Request of Beyzai from Karim-Masihi]." Accessed May 6, 2017. http://www.cinemakhabar.ir/NewsDetails.aspx?ID=68599
  5. Dang, Que Anh. 2013. "ASEM-The Modern Silk Road: Travelling Ideas for Education Reforms and Partnerships between Asia and Europe." Comparative Education, 49.1: 107-119. https://doi.org/10.1080/03050068.2012.740223
  6. Eliot, Thomas Stearns. 1920. "Hamlet and His Problems." The Sacred Wood: Essays on Poetry and Criticism: 95-103.
  7. Ferdowsi, Abu al-Qasim Tousi. 2006. Shahnameh: the Persian Book of Kings. Translated by Dick Davis, New York: Penguin.
  8. Ghoreishi, Aria. 2009. "Boodan ya Naboodan/ [To Be or Not to Be]." Cinema Lovers. Accessed November 25, 2015. http://ariaghoreishi.blogfa.com/post-154.aspx
  9. Gorfain, Phyllis. 1998. "Towards A Theory of Play and the Carnivalesque in Hamlet." Shakespeare and Carnival. Ed. Ronald Knowles, London: Macmillan Press Ltd.: 152-176.
  10. Hosseinioun, Amin. 2014. "Shoruy-e Tardid/ [Beginning Doubt.]" Writing in-between. Accessed May 13, 2017. http://aminhosseinioun.com/?p=568
  11. Hutcheon, Linda. 2006. A Theory of Adaptation. New York: Routledge.
  12. Karim-Masihi, Varuzh. 2009. "Tamam-e Donya Bazi Ast [The Whole World Is a Play]." Interview by Jaber Ghasem-Ali. Filmnegar: 13-19.
  13. Khayyam, Omar ibn Ibrahim Neishahburi. 2003. Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam. Trans. Edward Fitz Gerald. Tehran: Jeyhoon Publication.
  14. Kuchins, Andrew C., Thomas M. Sanderson, and David A. Gordon. 2010. "Afghanistan: Building the missing link in the modern silk road." The Washington Quarterly, 33.2: 33-47. https://doi.org/10.1080/01636601003661902
  15. Lee, Meewon. 2009. "Hamlet in Korea." Shakespeare in Hollywood, Asia, and Cyberspace: 129-38.
  16. Leitch, Thomas. 2007. Film Adaptation and Its Discontents: From Gone with the Wind to The Passion of the Christ. Baltimore: The John Hopkins University Press.
  17. Liu, Siyuan.2007. "Adaptation as Appropriation: Staging Western Drama in the First Western-Style Theatres in Japan and China." Theatre Journal, 59.3: 411-429. https://doi.org/10.1353/tj.2007.0159
  18. Liu, Xinru. 2011. "A Silk Road Legacy: The spread of Buddhism and Islam." Journal of World History, 22.1: 55-81. https://doi.org/10.1353/jwh.2011.0021
  19. Ma, Debin. 1996. "The Modern Silk Road: The Global Raw-Silk Market, 1850-1930." The Journal of Economic History, 56.2: 330-355. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022050700016478
  20. Misra, Manjusha. 2011. "Review of Shadow of the Silk Road." International Journal of Environmental Studies, 68.3: 400-404. https://doi.org/10.1080/00207233.2011.578336
  21. Molla Hosseini, Mohammad. 2011. "Zendegi Nam-e Karim Masihi [Biography of Varuzh Karim-Masihi]." Hamshahri Online. Accessed May 13, 2017. http://www.hamshahrionline.ir/details/149312
  22. Morshed, Saeed. 2010. "Sher-e Fazel Nazari [Fazel Nazari's Poetry]." Bibahaneh. Accessed June 12, 2016. http://www.bi-bahane.blogfa.com/cat-1.aspx
  23. Raziyifar, Behrooz. 2009. "Mosahebeh ba Karim-Masihi [Interview with Karim-Masihi]." Mehr News Agency. Accessed May 13, 2017. http://www.mehrnews.com/news/957745
  24. "Roz Shomar-e Amare- Jasnvare-e Fajr [Records in Fajr Festival]." 2013. Entekhab. ir. News Agency. Accessed February 7, 2016. http://www.entekhab.ir/fa/news/91475
  25. Sanders, Andrew. 1994. The Short Oxford History of English Literature. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  26. Sanders, Julie. 2006. Adaptation and Appropriation: The New Critical Idiom. New York: Routledge.
  27. Taherkhani, Ali-Reza. 2009. "Naghd-e Tardid [Review of Tardid]." Silver Cinema. Accessed November 25, 2015. http://silver30nema.blogfa.com/post-81.aspx
  28. Tajvidi, Amir-Reza. 2009. "Yad Dasht-hay Tardid Varuzh Karim-Masihi [Notes on Doubts of Varuzh Karim-Masihi]." Snowmen. Accessed May 13, 2017. http://adambarfiha.com/?p=3759
  29. Tardid/ [Doubt]. 2009. Dir. Varuzh Karim-Masihi. Perf. Bahram Radan and Taraneh Ali-Dusti. Farabi, DVD.
  30. "Tardid, Asar-e Varuzh Karim-Masihi [Tardid, by Varuzh Karim-Masihi]." 2006. Tebyan. Accessed November 25, 2015. http://www.tebyan-zn.ir/News-Article/tv_cinema/movie_review/2012/8/5/71856.html
  31. "Tardid: Eghtebas-s Shahkar-e Shakespeare [Tardid: The Adaptation of Shakespeare's Masterpiece]." 2009. Mehr News Agency. Accessed May 13, 2017. http://www.mehrnews.com/news/963887
  32. Thubron, Colin. 2007. Shadow of the Silk Road. New York: Random House.
  33. Zhang and Lauer. 2015. "How Culture Shapes the Reading of Fairy Tales: A Cross-Cultural Approach." Comparative Literature Studies, 52.4: 663. https://doi.org/10.5325/complitstudies.52.4.0663