Bending Behavior of Nailed-Jointed Cross-Laminated Timber Loaded Perpendicular to Plane

  • Pang, Sung-Jun (Chonnam National University) ;
  • Kim, Kwang-Mo (Department of Forest Products, National Institute of Forest Science) ;
  • Park, Sun-Hyang (Department of Forest Products, National Institute of Forest Science) ;
  • Lee, Sang-Joon (Department of Forest Products, National Institute of Forest Science)
  • Received : 2017.09.02
  • Accepted : 2017.10.13
  • Published : 2017.11.25


In this study, the bending behavior of cross-laminated timber (CLT) connected by nails were investigated. Especially, the load-carrying capacity of the nail-jointed CLT under out-of-plane bending was predicted by the lateral resistance of the used nails. Three-layer nail-jointed CLT specimens and a nail connection were manufactured by 30 mm (thickness) ${\times}$ 100 mm (width) domestic species (Pinus koraiensis) laminas and Ø$3.15{\times}82mm$ nails using a nail-gun. Shear test for evaluating the nail lateral resistance and bending test for evaluating the load-carrying capacity of the nail-jointed CLT under out-of-plane bending were carried out. As a result, two lateral resistance of the used nail, the 5% fastener offset value and the maximum value, were 913 N and 1,534 N, respectively. The predicted load-carrying capacity of the nail-jointed CLT by the 5% offset nail lateral resistance was similar to the yield points on the actual load-displacement curve of the nail-jointed CLT specimens. Meanwhile, the nail-jointed CLT specimens were not failed until the tension failure of the bottom laminas occurred beyond the maximum lateral resistance of the nails. Thus, the measured maximum load carrying capacities of the nail-jointed CLT specimens, approximately 12,865 N, were higher than the predicted values, 7,986 N, by the maximum nail lateral resistance. This indicates that the predicted load-carrying capacity can be used for designing a structural unit such as floor, wall and roof able to support vertical loads in a viewpoint of predicting the actual capacities more safely.


  1. ANSI/APA. 2012. Standards for performance-rated cross-laminated timber. ANSI/APA PRG 320. Tacoma, WA: APA - The Engineering Wood Association.
  2. ASTM D5652. 2015. Standard Test Methods for Single-Bolt Connections in Wood and Wood-Based Products. American Society for Testing and Materials, West Conshohocken, PA.
  3. Buck, D., Wang, X.A., Hagman, O., Gustafsson, A. 2015. Comparison of Different Assembling Techniques Regarding Cost, Durability, and Ecology-A Survey of Multi-layer Wooden Panel Assembly Load-Bearing Construction Elements. BioResources 10(4): 8378-8396.
  4. Chen, Y. 2011. Structural performance of box based cross laminated timber system used in floor applications (Doctoral dissertation, University of British Columbia).
  5. EN 16351. 2014. Timber structures-cross laminated timber-requirements. Draft version, European Committee for Standardization (CEN).
  6. Forest Products Lab. 2010. Wood Handbook: Wood as an Engineering Material. U.S. Department of Agriculture. Forest Service, Madison, Wisconsin.
  7. FPInnovations. 2011. CLT Handbook: Cross laminated timber. Canadian Edition. Special Publication SP-528E. Edited by S. Gagnon and C. Privu. FPInnovations, Quebec, QC, Canada.
  8. Gavric, I., Fragiacomo, M., Ceccotti, A. 2015. Cyclic behaviour of typical metal connectors for cross-laminated (CLT) structures. Materials and Structures 48(6): 1841-1857.
  9. Ji, C., Cao, W., Chen, Y., Yang, H. 2016. Carbon balance and contribution of harvested wood products in China based on the production approach of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 13(11): 1132.
  10. Kairi, M. 2002. Glued/Screwed Joints/Screw Glued Wooden Structures. COST Action E13: 115.
  11. Kim B.R. 1995. Studies on Variability in Wood Properties in Tree Stems of Pinus koraiensis (I)-Differences in Green Moisture Content and Shrinkage between Heartwood and Sapwood-. Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology 23(1): 28-34.
  12. Kim, H.K., Oh, J.K., Jeong, G.Y., Yeo, H., Lee, J.J. 2013. Shear Performance of PUR Adhesive in Cross Laminatig of RED Pine. Journal of Korean Wood Science and Technology 41(2): 158-163.
  13. Korea Forest Service. 1991. Statistical yearbook of forestry: 221-231.
  14. Korea Forest Service. 2017. Statistical yearbook of forestry: 162-163.
  15. Li, M. 2017. Evaluating rolling shear strength properties of cross-laminated timber by short-span bending tests and modified planar shear tests. Journal of Wood Science 63(4): 331-337.
  16. Mallo, M.F.L., Espinoza, O. 2015. Awareness, perceptions and willingness to adopt cross-laminated timber by the architecture community in the United States. Journal of Cleaner Production 94: 198-210.
  17. National Institute of Forest Science (NIFoS) notification No. 2017-9. 2017. Standard and specification of wood products.
  18. Oh, J.K., Hong, J.P., Kim, C.K., Pang, S.J., Lee, S.J., Lee, J.J. 2017. Shear behavior of cross-laminated timber wall consisting of small panels. Journal of Wood Science 63(1): 45-55.
  19. Oh, J.K., Lee, J.J., Hong, J.P. 2015. Prediction of compressive strength of cross-laminated timber panel. Journal of wood science 61(1): 28-34.
  20. Park, S.H., Kim, G.M., Pang, S.J., Kong, J.H., Lee, S.J. 2017. Evaluation of Shear Strength by Direction of Wood Grain for Korean Pine Using PRF Adhesive. Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology 45(3): 243-249.
  21. Rafiei, M.H., Adeli, H. 2016. Sustainability in highrise building design and construction. The Structural Design of Tall and Special Buildings 25(13): 643-658.
  22. Schneider, J., Karacabeyli, E., Popovski, M., Stiemer, S.F., Tesfamariam, S. 2013. Damage assessment of connections used in cross-laminated timber subject to cyclic loads. Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities 28(6): A4014008.
  23. Sikora, K.S., McPolin, D.O., Harte, A.M. 2016. Effects of the thickness of cross-laminated timber (CLT) panels made from Irish Sitka spruce on mechanical performance in bending and shear. Construction and Building Materials 116: 141-150.
  24. Thoma, E. 2012. Construction elements catalog system Thoma Holz100.
  25. Uibel, T., BlaB, H.J. 2013. Joints with dowel type fasteners in CLT structures. COST Action FP1004: focus solid timber solutions-European conference on cross laminated timber (CLT).
  26. Wang, Z., Fu, H., Gong, M., Luo, J., Dong, W., Wang, T., Chui, Y.H. 2017. Planar shear and bending properties of hybrid CLT fabricated with lumber and LVL. Construction and Building Materials 151(1): 172-177.
  27. Woodall, C. 2011. An overview of the Forest products sector downturn in the United States. Forest Products Journal 61: 595-603.
  28. Zheng, W., Lu, W., Liu, W., Wang, L., Ling, Z. 2015. Experimental investigation of laterally loaded double-shear-nail connections used in midply wood shear walls. Construction and Building Materials 101: 761-771.