Optimal PID Controller Design for DC Motor Speed Control System with Tracking and Regulating Constrained Optimization via Cuckoo Search

  • Received : 2017.06.03
  • Accepted : 2017.08.14
  • Published : 2018.01.01


Metaheuristic optimization approach has become the new framework for control synthesis. The main purposes of the control design are command (input) tracking and load (disturbance) regulating. This article proposes an optimal proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller design for the DC motor speed control system with tracking and regulating constrained optimization by using the cuckoo search (CS), one of the most efficient population-based metaheuristic optimization techniques. The sum-squared error between the referent input and the controlled output is set as the objective function to be minimized. The rise time, the maximum overshoot, settling time and steady-state error are set as inequality constraints for tracking purpose, while the regulating time and the maximum overshoot of load regulation are set as inequality constraints for regulating purpose. Results obtained by the CS will be compared with those obtained by the conventional design method named Ziegler-Nichols (Z-N) tuning rules. From simulation results, it was found that the Z-N provides an impractical PID controller with very high gains, whereas the CS gives an optimal PID controller for DC motor speed control system satisfying the preset tracking and regulating constraints. In addition, the simulation results are confirmed by the experimental ones from the DC motor speed control system developed by analog technology.

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Fig. 1. Schematic diagram of DC motor

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Fig. 2. DC motor plant

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Fig. 3. DC motor plant testing rig

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Fig. 4. Plots of actual speed response and plant model

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Fig. 5. PID control loop

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Fig. 6. Tracking and regulating purposes

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Fig. 7. CS-based PID control design optimization

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Fig. 8. Flow diagram of CS algorithms

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Fig. 9. Convergent rates of objective function

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Fig. 10. Responses without and with PID designed by Z-N

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Fig. 11. Responses without and with PID designed by CS

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Fig. 12. DC motor speed control system testing rig

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Fig. 13. System responses (experimental results)


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