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A Self-Powered RFID Sensor Tag for Long-Term Temperature Monitoring in Substation

  • Chen, Zhongbin (Dept. of Electrical and Automation Engineering, East China Jiaotong University) ;
  • Deng, Fangming (Dept. of Electrical and Automation Engineering, East China Jiaotong University) ;
  • He, Yigang (Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Hefei University of Technology) ;
  • Liang, Zhen (Rising Micro Electronics Co., Ltd.) ;
  • Fu, Zhihui (Dept. of Electrical and Automation Engineering, East China Jiaotong University) ;
  • Zhang, Chaolong (Dept. of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Anqing Normal University)
  • Received : 2016.12.11
  • Accepted : 2017.08.18
  • Published : 2018.01.01

Abstract

Radio frequency identification (RFID) sensor tag provides several advantages including battery-less operation and low cost, which are suitable for long-term monitoring. This paper presents a self-powered RFID temperature sensor tag for online temperature monitoring in substation. The proposed sensor tag is used to measure and process the temperature of high voltage equipments in substation, and then wireless deliver the data. The proposed temperature sensor employs a novel phased-locked loop (PLL)-based architecture and can convert the temperature sensor in frequency domain without a reference clock, which can significantly improve the temperature accuracy. A two-stage rectifier adopts a series of auxiliary floating rectifier to boost its gate voltage for higher power conversion efficiency. The sensor tag chip was fabricated in TSMC $0.18{\mu}m$ 1P6M CMOS process. The measurement results show that the proposed temperature sensor tag achieve a resolution of $0.15^{\circ}C$/LSB and a temperature error of $-0.6/0.7^{\circ}C$ within the range from $-30^{\circ}C$ to $70^{\circ}C$. The proposed sensor tag achieves maximum communication distance of 11.8 m.

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Fig. 1. Energy relay network

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Fig. 2. The overall substation temperature monitoringsystem

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Fig. 3. Architecture of the proposed RFID temperature sensor tag

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Fig. 4. Proposed temperature sensor

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Fig. 5. Schematic of the proposed rectifier

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Fig. 6. Schematic of the proposed voltage regulator

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Fig. 7. Simplified reference generator

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Fig. 8. Block diagram of the proposed digital baseband

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Fig. 9. (a) The proposed RFID temperature sensor tag; (b) testing environment

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Fig. 10. Parameters of the proposed antenna: (a) simulated S11; (b) radiation pattern

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Fig. 11. The measured communication flow

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Fig. 12. Measured temperature performances: (a) linearity; (b) temperature error

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Fig. 13. Performance of the proposed rectifier: (a) power conversion efficiency and (b) output voltage

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Fig. 14. Average read rate for different separation distances

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Fig. 15. Influence of orientation angle on data reading rate:(a) test environment, (b) measurement results

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Fig. 16. Average reading rate vs. reader-tag distance

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Fig. 17. Comparison of temperature measured in different methods

Table 1. Performances comparison of wireless temperature sensor

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Acknowledgement

Supported by : Natural Science Foundation of China

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