- Volume 31 Issue 12
DOI QR Code
Appropriate level of alfalfa hay in diets for rearing Simmental crossbred calves in dryland China
- Kobayashi, Nobuyuki (The United Graduate School of Agricultural Sciences, Tottori University) ;
- Hou, Fujiang (State Key Laboratory of Grassland Agro-ecosystems, Key Laboratory of Grassland Livestock Industry Innovation, Ministry of Agriculture, College of Pastoral Agriculture Science and Technology, Lanzhou University) ;
- Tsunekawa, Atsushi (Arid Land Research Center, Tottori University) ;
- Chen, Xianjiang (State Key Laboratory of Grassland Agro-ecosystems, Key Laboratory of Grassland Livestock Industry Innovation, Ministry of Agriculture, College of Pastoral Agriculture Science and Technology, Lanzhou University) ;
- Yan, Tianhai (Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute) ;
- Ichinohe, Toshiyoshi (Faculty of Life and Environmental Science, Shimane University)
- Received : 2018.01.26
- Accepted : 2018.05.02
- Published : 2018.12.01
Objective: In dryland areas of China, alfalfa hay (AH) is a possible substitute for concentrate feed for beef cattle. To evaluate the potential benefits of this substitution, we studied the effect of the ratio of AH intake to total dry matter (DM) intake on average daily body-weight gain (ADG), dietary energy utilization status, and economic benefit in Gansu province. Methods: In each of two feeding trials in 2016 (trial 1 [T1], July 3 to 17; trial 2 [T2], August 15 to September 23), crossbred male Simmental calves were allocated to low AH (LA), medium AH (MA), and high AH (HA) feeding groups (n = 4 per group). The target ADG was set as 1 kg for both trials. In a one-way-layout design based on conventional feeding practices in the province, calves received diets containing the different AH amounts, with a constant ratio of corn stover:total DM and decreasing rations of concentrate feed proportional to the increase in AH. Calves in T1 received AH at 15% (T1-LA), 23% (T1-MA), or 31% (T1-HA) of their dietary DM allowances; those in T2 received 9% (T2-LA), 24% (T2-MA), or 34% (T2-HA) AH. Results: Among the T1 groups, both ADG and economic benefit were highest in T1-LA; whereas in T2, they were higher in the T2-LA and T2-MA groups than in T2-HA. Energy digestibility did not significantly differ among the groups in either trial. The dietary AH inclusion ratios of 14% in the warm season and 8% to 21% in the cool season appeared to yield optimal ADG, metabolizable energy intake, and economic benefit. Conclusion: Low-level inclusion of AH, ranging from 8% to 21%, is a practical approach for beef cattle feeding. This modified feeding regimen likely will promote increased growth performance during the fattening stage of beef steers in dryland areas of Gansu province, China.
Alfalfa;Substitution;Feeding Trial;Economic Benefit;Dryland Area in China
Supported by : National Natural Science Foundation of China
- Han Z, Zheng Q, Abe J, Zhou Z. Pasturage prohibition and pasturage pause and stock raising management in Inner Mongolia China: transaction zone between cropping area and nomadic area. Agric Mark J Japan 2008;17:80-5 (In Japanese).
- Rong Y, Han J, Hu Y, Li G. The review of grazing alfalfa varieties. Grassl China 2004;26:49-56 (In Chinese.)
- Guo H, Zhao J, Yand X, et al. Moisture use efficiency and economic benefit of some crops in the east of Gansu. Chinese J Soil Sci 2007;38:709-12 (In Chinese).
- Kobayashi N, Hou F, Tsunekawa A, et al. Effects of substituting alfalfa hay for concentrate on energy utilization and feeding cost of crossbred Simmental male calves in Gansu Province, China. Grassl Sci 2017;63:245-54. https://doi.org/10.1111/grs.12169
- National Bureau of Statistics of China. China Statistics Yearbook 2013. Beijing, China: China Statistics Press; 2014 (In Chinese).
- Gansu Provincial Science and Technology Department. Guide for Laboratory Animal Administration in Gansu Province. Lanzhou, China: Gansu Provincial Science and Technology Department; 2005 [cited 2017 October 13]. Available from: http://www.most.gov.cn/fggw/dffggw/dffggs/200601/t20060106_53696.htm (In Chinese)
- MOA (Ministry of Agriculture of the People's Republic of China). Feeding Standard for Beef Cattle. Beijing, China: Ministry of Agriculture of the People's Republic of China; 2004 [cited 2015 July 18]. Available from: http://wenku.baidu.com/view/a112b1a1c77da26925c5b0f1.html (In Chinese)
- AFRC. Energy and protein requirements of ruminants. An advisory manual prepared by the afrc technical committee on responses to nutrients. Wallingford, UK: CAB International; 1993.
- NARO (National Agricultural and Food Research Organization). Standard Tables of Feed Composition in Japan (2009). Tokyo, Japan: Japan Livestock Industry Association; 2010 (In Japanese).
- Brower E. Report of Sub-committee on Constants and Factors. In: Blaxter KL, editor. Energy metabolism of farm animals, EAAP Publ. No. 11. London, UK: Academic Press; 1965. p. 441-3.
- Freetly HC, Nienaber JA, Brown-Brandl T. Partitioning of energy during lactation of primiparous beef cows. J Anim Sci 2006;84:2157-62. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2005-534
- AOAC International. Official Method of Analysis, 14th ed. Arlington, VA, USA: AOAC International; 1984.
- Van Soest PJ, Robertson JB, Lewis BA. Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and nonstarch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. J Dairy Sci 1991;74:3583-97. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(91)78551-2
- Munitifering RB. Evaluation of various lignin assays for determining ruminal digestion of roughages by lambs. J Anim Sci 1982;55:432-8. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas1982.552432x
- Okushima S, Wada H. Studies on concentrate-roughage ratio of feed taken by fattening steer on free access. Scientific Reports of the Faculty of Agriculture, Okayama University 1976;47:81-8 (In Japanese).
- Hales KE, Brown-Brandl TM, Freely HC. Effects of decreased dietary roughage concentration on energy metabolism and nutrient balance in finishing beef cattle. J Anim Sci 2014;92:264-71. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2013-6994
- Liu D, Fu D, Qu M, et al. Energy metabolism and requirement of 12 to 13 months old Xiangzhong Black cattle. Chinese J Anim Nutr 2013;25:3013-9 (In Chinese).
- National Agricultural Insurance Association. In: Economic Bureau, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, editor. Guideline for clinical pathologic test in national livestock insurance. Tokyo, Japan: National Agricultural Insurance Association; 1997. p. 104-217 (In Japanese).
- Oikawa S. Recent research trend on subclinical ketosis in dairy cattle. J Jpn Vet Med Assoc 2015;68:33-42 (In Japanese). https://doi.org/10.12935/jvma.68.33
- Nakatsuji H. Studies on efficiency of feeds energy utilization in lactating dairy cows under high roughage feeding system. Res Bull Univ Farm Hokkaido Univ 1999;31:75-128 (In Japanese).
- NARO (National Agricultural and Food Research Organization). Japanese feeding standard for beef cattle. Tokyo, Japan: Japan Livestock Industry Association; 2008 (In Japanese).
- McCroskey JE, Pope LS, Stephens DF, Waller G. Effect of pelleting steer-fattening rations of different concentrate to roughage ratios. J Anim Sci 1961;20:42-5. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas1961.20142x
- Kurohiji I, Takimoto Y, Iwanari H, et al. Studies on the feeding standard for the Japanese beef cattle II. Effects of ratios of concentrate and roughage on performance and carcass quality of fattening young beef steers. Kyushu Agric Exp Sta Bull 1970;15:331-66 (In Japanese).
- Shike DW. Beef cattle feed efficiency. In: Proceedings of Driftless Region Beef Conference 2013. Dubuque, IA, USA: Iowa State University; c2013 [cited on 2017 May 24]. Available from: http://lib.dr.iastate.edu/driftlessconference/2013/papers/13/
- USDA. China-Peoples Republic of: Livestock and Products Annual 2016. In: GAIN (Global Agricultural Information Network) Report (CH16043). Washington DC, USA: Foreign Agricultural Service, USDA; c2016 [cited on 2017 May 24]. Available from: http://gain.fas.usda.gov/Recent%20GAIN%20Publications/Livestock%20and%20Products%
- Sekine J, Hanada M, Morita S, et al. Effect of hay:concentrate ratios on digestibility of a mixed ration for growing calves. Jpn J Zootech Sci 1986;57:231-6.
- Cowsert RL, Montgomery MJ. Effect of varying forage-toconcentrate ratio of isonitrogenous rations on feed intake by ruminants. J Dairy Sci 1969;52:64-7. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(69)86502-1