Restoration of Distribution System with Distributed Energy Resources using Level-based Candidate Search

  • Kim, Dong-Eok (KEPCO Research Institute, Korea Electric Power Corporation) ;
  • Cho, Namhun (KEPCO Research Institute, Korea Electric Power Corporation)
  • Received : 2017.06.07
  • Accepted : 2017.12.15
  • Published : 2018.03.01


In this paper, we propose a method to search candidates of network reconfiguration to restore distribution system with distributed energy resources using a level-based tree search algorithm. First, we introduce a method of expressing distribution network with distributed energy resources for fault restoration, and to represent the distribution network into a simplified graph. Second, we explain the tree search algorithm, and introduce a method of performing the tree search on the basis of search levels, which we call a level-based tree search in this paper. Then, we propose a candidate search method for fault restoration, and explain it using an example. Finally, we verify the proposed method using computer simulations.


  1. C.-C. Liu, S.-J. Lee, and S. S. Venkata, "An expert system operational aid for restoration and loss reduction of distribution systems," IEEE Trans. on Power Syst., vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 619-626, May 1988.
  2. M. Korkah, H. Lev-Ari, and A. Abur, "Traveling-wavebased fault-location technique for transmission grids via wide-area synchronized voltage measurements," IEEE Trans. on Power Syst., vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 1003-1011, May 2012.
  3. E. Agneholm and F. Daalder, "Cold load pick-up of residential load," IEE Proc.-Gener., Transm., and Distrib., vol. 147, no. 1, pp. 44-50, Jan. 2000.
  4. C. Uçak and A. Pahwa, "An analytical approach for step-by-step restoration of distribution systems following extended outages," IEEE Trans. on Power Delivery, vol. 9, pp. 1717-1723, 1994.
  5. IEEE Guide for loading mineral-oil-immersed transformers, IEEE Std. C57.91-1995
  6. S.-J. Lee, S.-I. Lim, and B.-S. Ahn, "Service restoration of primary distributions based on fuzzy evaluation of multi-criteria," IEEE Trans. on Power Syst., vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 1156-1163, Aug. 1998.
  7. S.-I. Lim, S.-J. Lee, M.-S. Choi, D.-J. Lim, and D.-H. Park, "Restoration index in distribution systems and its application to system operation," IEEE Trans. on Power Syst., vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 1966-1971, Nov. 2006.
  8. Y.-T. Hsiao and C. Y. Chien, "Enhancement of restoration service in distribution systems using a combination fuzzy-GA method," IEEE Trans. on Power Syst., vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 1394-1400, Nov. 2000.
  9. S. Toune, H. Fudo, T. Genji, Y. Fukuyama, and Y. Nakanishi, "Comparative study of modern heuristic algorithms to service restoration in distribution systems," IEEE Trans. on Power Del., vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 173-181, Jan. 2002.
  10. Y. Kumar, B. Das, and J. Sharma, "Multiobjective, multiconstraint service restoration of electric power distribution system with priority customers," IEEE Trans. on Power Del., vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 261-270, Jan. 2008.
  11. J. Li, X.-Y. Ma, C.-C. Liu, and K. P. Schneider, "Distribution system restoration with microgrids using spanning tree search," IEEE Trans. on Power Syst., vol. 29, no. 6, pp. 3021-3029, Nov. 2014.
  12. A. J. Benavides, M. Ritt, L. S. Buriol, and P. M. Franca, "An iterated sample construction with path relinking method: application to switch allocation in electrical distribution networks," Computer & Operations Research, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 24-32, Jan. 2013.
  13. L. S. de Assis, J. F. V. Gonzalez, F. L. Usberti, C. Lyra, C. Cavellucci, and F. J. V. Zuben, "Switch allocation problems in power distribution systems," IEEE Trans. on Power Syst., vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 246-253, Jan. 2015.
  14. S. A. N. Sarmadi, A. S. Dobakhshari, S. Azizi, and A. M. Ranjbar, "A sectionalizing method in power system restoration based on WAMS," IEEE Trans. on Smart Grid, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 190-197, Mar. 2011.
  15. W. Mayeda and S. Seshu, "Generation of trees without duplications," IEEE Trans. on Circuit Theory, vol., no., pp. 181-185, June 1965.
  16. S. Seshu and M. B. Reed, Linear Graphs and Electrical Networks, Addison-Wesley, pp. 28-33, 72-76, 1961.