DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Multi-Objective Optimal Predictive Energy Management Control of Grid-Connected Residential Wind-PV-FC-Battery Powered Charging Station for Plug-in Electric Vehicle

  • Received : 2017.08.27
  • Accepted : 2017.11.06
  • Published : 2018.03.01

Abstract

Electric vehicles (EV) are emerging as the future transportation vehicle reflecting their potential safe environmental advantages. Vehicle to Grid (V2G) system describes the hybrid system in which the EV can communicate with the utility grid and the energy flows with insignificant effect between the utility grid and the EV. The paper presents an optimal power control and energy management strategy for Plug-In Electric Vehicle (PEV) charging stations using Wind-PV-FC-Battery renewable energy sources. The energy management optimization is structured and solved using Multi-Objective Particle Swarm Optimization (MOPSO) to determine and distribute at each time step the charging power among all accessible vehicles. The Model-Based Predictive (MPC) control strategy is used to plan PEV charging energy to increase the utilization of the wind, the FC and solar energy, decrease power taken from the power grid, and fulfil the charging power requirement of all vehicles. Desired features for EV battery chargers such as the near unity power factor with negligible harmonics for the ac source, well-regulated charging current for the battery, maximum output power, high efficiency, and high reliability are fully confirmed by the proposed solution.

Acknowledgement

Supported by : Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University

References

  1. Vítor Monteiro, Joao C. Ferreira, Joao L. Afonso. "Operation Modes of Battery Chargers for Electric Vehicles in the Future Smart Grids," in Technological Innovation for Collective Awareness Systems, 1st ed., Luis M. Camarinha-Matos, Luis M. Barreto, Nuno S. Mendonca, Ed. Springer, 2014, Chapter 44, pp. 401-408.
  2. Preetham Goli and Wajiha Shireen "Control and Management of PV Integrated Charging Facilities for PEVs" Springer Science+Business Media Singapore 2015, S. Rajakaruna et al. (eds.), Plug In Electric Vehicles in Smart Grids, Power Systems, Chapter 2.
  3. Galus MD, Andersson G. Demand management of grid connected plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV). In: Proceedings of IEEE energy 2030 conference, ENERGY; 2008. pp. 1-8.
  4. Kelman C. Supporting increasing renewable energy penetration in Australia- the potential contribution of electric vehicles. In: Proceedings of 20th Australasian universities power engineering conference (AUPEC); 2010. pp. 1-6.
  5. Barker PP, Bing JM. Advances in solar photovoltaic technology: an applications perspective. In: Proceedings of power engineering society general meeting, vol. 2; 2005. pp. 1955-60.
  6. Kadar P, Varga A. PhotoVoltaic EV charge station. In: Proceedings of IEEE 11th international symposium on applied machine intelligence and informatics (SAMI); 2013. pp. 57-60.
  7. Branker K, Pathak MJM, Pearce JM. A review of solar photovoltaic levelized cost of electricity. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 2011;15:4470-82. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2011.07.104
  8. Van Roy J, Leemput N, Geth F, Salenbien R, Buscher J, Driesen J. Apartment building electricity system impact of operational electric vehicle charging strategies. IEEE Trans Sustain Energy 2013;5:264-72.
  9. Gamboa G, Hamilton C, Kerley R, Elmes S, Arias A, Shen J, et al. Control strategy of a multi-port, grid connected, direct-DC PV charging station for plug-in electric vehicles. In: Proceedings of IEEE energy conversion congress and exposition (ECCE); 2010. pp. 1173-77.
  10. Alonso M, Abella, F. ChenloAbella MA, Chenlo F. Photovoltaic charging station for electrical vehicles. In: Proceedings of 3rd world conference on photovoltaic energy conversion, vol.3; 2003. pp. 2280-83.
  11. Tulpule PJ, Marano V, Yurkovich S, Rizzoni G. Economic and environmental impacts of a PV powered workplace parking garage charging station. Appl Energy 2013;108: 323-32. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2013.02.068
  12. Tulpule PJ, Marano V, Yurkovich S, Rizzoni G (2013) Economic and environmental impacts of a PV powered workplace parking garage charging station. J Appl Energy 108:323-332 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2013.02.068
  13. Birnie III DP (2009) Solar-to-vehicle (S2 V) systems for powering commuters of the future. J Power Sources, 186(2): 539-542. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpowsour.2008.09.118
  14. Zhang Q, Tezuka T, Ishihara KN, Mclellan BC (2012) Integration of PV power into future lowcarbon smart electricity systems with EV and HP in Kansai Area, Japan. J Renew Energy 44:99-108. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2012.01.003
  15. Denholm P, Kuss M, Margolis RM (2012) Cobenefits of large scale plug-in hybrid electric vehicle and solar PV deployment. J Power Sources 236:350-356.
  16. Chiang SJ, Hsin-Jang S, Ming-Chieh C. Modeling and Control of PV Charger System With SEPIC Converter. IEEE Trans Ind Electron 2009; 56:4344-53. https://doi.org/10.1109/TIE.2008.2005144
  17. Dharmakeerthi CH, Mithulananthan N, Saha TK. Modeling and planning of EV fast charging station in power grid. In: Proceedings of power and energy society general meeting; 2012. p. 1-8.
  18. Yilmaz M, Krein PT. Review of battery charger topologies, charging power levels, and infrastructure for plug-in electric and hybrid vehicles. IEEE Trans Power Electron 2013;28:2151-69. https://doi.org/10.1109/TPEL.2012.2212917
  19. Saeid Haghbin, Sonja Lundmark, Mats Alaküla, Ola Carlson, "Grid-Connected Integrated Battery Chargers in Vehicle Applications: Review and New Solution," IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 60, no. 2, pp. 459-473, Feb. 2013. https://doi.org/10.1109/TIE.2012.2187414
  20. L. Jian, H. Xue, G. Xu, X. Zhu, D. Zhao, Z. Y. Shao, "Regulated Charging of Plugin Hybrid Electric Vehicles for Minimizing Load Variance in Household Smart Micro-Grid," IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 60, pp. 3218-3226, Aug. 2013. https://doi.org/10.1109/TIE.2012.2198037
  21. Vítor Monteiro, Joao C. Ferreira, Andres A. Nogueiras Melendez, Joao L. Afonso. "Electric Vehicles On-Board Battery Charger for the Future Smart Grids," in Technological Innovation for the Internet of Things, 1st ed., Luis M. Camarinha-Matos, Slavisa Tomic, Paula Graca, Ed. Springer, 2013, Chapter 38, pp. 351-358.
  22. K. Clement-Nyns, E. Haesen, J. Driesen, "The impact of charging Plug-In hybrid electric vehicles on a residential distribution grid," IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol. 25, pp. 371-380, Feb. 2010. https://doi.org/10.1109/TPWRS.2009.2036481
  23. C. Farmer, P. Hines, J. Dowds, and S. Blumsack, "Modeling the impact of increasing PHEV loads on the distribution infrastructure," in 43rd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), January 2010, pp. 1-10.
  24. George Xydis, Evanthia Nanaki" Wind Energy Based Electric Vehicle Charging Stations Sitting. A GIS/ Wind Resource Assessment Approach" Challenges 2015, 6, 258-270. https://doi.org/10.3390/challe6020258
  25. Zhang Q, Tezuka T, Ishihara KN, Mclellan BC (2012) Integration of PV power into future lowcarbon smart electricity systems with EV and HP in Kansai Area, Japan. J Renew Energy 44:99-108. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2012.01.003
  26. Denholm P, Kuss M, Margolis RM (2012) Cobenefits of large scale plug-in hybrid electric vehicle and solar PV deployment. J Power Sources 236:350-356.
  27. Nagarajan A, Shireen W (2010) Grid connected residential photovoltaic energy systems with plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) as energy storage. In: IEEE power and energy society general meeting, 25-29 July 2010.
  28. Oviedo RM, Fan Z, Gormus S, Kulkarni P (2014) A residential PHEV load coordination mechanism with renewable sources in smart grids. J Electr Power Energy Syst, 55:511-521. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijepes.2013.10.002
  29. Choe GY, Kim JS, Lee BK, Won CY, Lee TW (2010) A bi-directional battery charger for electric vehicles using photovoltaic PCS systems. In: IEEE vehicle power and propulsion conference (VPPC), 1-3 Sept 2010.
  30. Gamboa G, Hamilton C, Kerley R, Elmes S, Arias A, Shen J, Batarseh I (2011) Control strategy of a multiport, grid connected, direct-DC PV charging station for plug-in electric vehicles. In: IEEE energy conversion congress and exposition (ECCE), 12-16 Sept 2011.
  31. Hamilton C, Gamboa G, Elmes J, Kerley R, Arias A, Pepper M, Shen J, Batarseh I (2010) System architecture of a modular direct-DC PV charging station for plug-in electric vehicles. In: 36th annual conference on IEEE industrial electronics society (IECON), 7-10 Nov 2010.
  32. Sun K, Zhang L, Xing Y, Guerrero JM (2011) A distributed control strategy based on dc bus signaling for modular photovoltaic generation systems with battery energy storage. IEEE Trans Power Electron, 26(10):3032-3045. https://doi.org/10.1109/TPEL.2011.2127488
  33. Jin C, Wang P, Xiao J, Tang Y, Choo FH (2014) Implementation of hierarchical control in DC microgrids. IEEE Trans Industr Electron, 61(8): 4032-4042. https://doi.org/10.1109/TIE.2013.2286563
  34. Preetham G, Shireen W (2012) Photovoltaic charging station for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in a smart grid environment. Paper presented at IEEE PES innovative smart grid technologies, 16-20 Jan. 2012.
  35. Goli P, Shireen W (2014) PV integrated smart charging of PHEVs based on DC link voltage sensing. IEEE Trans Smart Grid, 5(3):1421-1428. https://doi.org/10.1109/TSG.2013.2286745
  36. Y. Yu, (2012) "Model-Based multivariate control of conditioning systems for office buildings," PH.D, Carnegie Mellon University.
  37. M. A. Hossain, (2013) "A Dual-Rate model predictive controller for fieldbus based distributed control systems," M. Science, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada.