DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

A Novel Approved Mathematical Equation for Lightning Protection Angle

  • Singhasathein, Arnon (Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering, King Mongkut's University of technology North Bangkok) ;
  • Rungseevijitprapa, Weerapun (Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Chulalongkorn University) ;
  • Pruksanubal, Aphibal (Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering, King Mongkut's University of technology North Bangkok)
  • 투고 : 2017.05.29
  • 심사 : 2017.09.29
  • 발행 : 2018.03.01

초록

During the past few decades, the lightning protection angle (${\alpha}$) has been proposed through several technical matters, namely graphical technique, numerical data and mathematical equation respectively. Nevertheless, these techniques are very complicated, and are difficult to utilize because they also contain several constraints practically. Hence, this paper proposes a novel equation of the lightning protection angle, which is a simple correlation, concise and easy to be implemented. Furthermore, the reliable result of this equation can confirm accuracy through comparative analysis with all previous techniques. As a result, these solutions are altogether equivalent. This novel equation can analyze the lightning protection angle of the vertical air termination system installed at the vertex of the royal pagoda in a Khema-pirataram temple which is at high risk due to lightning flashes.

참고문헌

  1. R.H. Golde, Lightning Protection., London, UK: Edward Arnold, 1973, pp. 68-83.
  2. J.L. Marshall, Lightning Protection., USA: John Wiley & Sons, 1973, pp. 145-164.
  3. R. H. Lee, "Protection zone for buildings against lightning strokes using transmission line protection practice," IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications., vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 465-469, Nov.1978.
  4. P.Hasse and DEHN+SOHNE, "History of Lightning Protection," presented at IEC TC 81 Memorial Meeting, Institute of Electrical Installation Engineering of Japan. Japan, 1988, pp. 7-20.
  5. Technical Committee of the British standard GEL/81: Protection against Lightning, Code of practice for protection of structures against lightning, British standard 6651., 1999.
  6. IEC Technical Committee 81: Lightning protection, Protection of Structures Against Lightning Part 1-2 General Principles-Guild B-Design installation maintenance and inspection of lightning protection systems., International Standard IEC 61024-1-2., 1998-05.
  7. M.L.Henshaw, Protection against lightning A UK guide to the practical application of BS EN 62305. London ,UK: British Standards Institution 2007.
  8. G. Parise and L. Martrano, "The lightning protection system of a complex of structure (LPCS)," IEEE Systems Technical Conference on Industrial and Commercial Power 2005. New York, USA, 2005.
  9. T. Horvath, Computation of Lightning Protection. New York, USA: John Wiley & Sons, 1928, pp. 33-45.
  10. M.A.Sargent, "The frequency distribution of current magnitudes of lightning strokes to tall structures" IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems., vol. 95, no. 5, pp. 2224-2229, Dec. 1971.
  11. R.S.Velazquez, V.G. Gerez, D.M.Mukhedkar and Y.G.Gervais, "Probabilistic calculations of lightning protection for tall buildings" IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications., vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 252-259, Nov. 1978.
  12. A.M. Mousa, K.D. Rivastava, "The implication of the eletrogeometic model regarding effect of height of structure on the median amplitude of collected lightning strokes" IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery., vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 1450-1460, May.1988.
  13. P. Petterson, "A Unified Probabilistic Theory of the Incidence of Direct and Indirect Lightning Strikes," IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery., vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 1303-1310, July 1991.
  14. F.A.M. Rizk, "Modeling of lightning incidence to tall structures part 1: theory," IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery., vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 162-171, Jan.1994. https://doi.org/10.1109/61.277673
  15. A. Kuchler, Hochspannungstechnik Grunglagen-Technologie-Anwendungen. Berlin, Germany: Springer, 2005, pp. 497-498.
  16. B. Brusso "The eletrogeometric model of the rolling sphere method," IEEE Industry Applications Magazine., vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 7-70 May. 2016.
  17. IEC Technical Committee 81: Lightning protection, Protection Against Lightning Part 1 General Principles., International Standard IEC 62305-1., 2010-12.
  18. IEC Technical Committee 81: Lightning protection, Protection Against Lightning Part 2 Risk Management., International Standard IEC 62305-2., 2010-12.
  19. IEC Technical Committee 81: Lightning protection, Protection Against Lightning Part 3 Physical Damage to Structures and Life Hazard., International Standard IEC 62305-3., 2010-12.
  20. NFPA Technical Committee on Lightning Protection, Standard for installation of lightning protection systems., National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) 780., 2011 Edition.
  21. G.Parise, L.Martrano and M.Lucheroni, "Level, class, and prospected safety performance of a lightning protection system for a complex of structure (LPCS)," IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications., vol. 46, no. 5, pp. 2106-2110, Sep. 2010. https://doi.org/10.1109/TIA.2010.2059370
  22. A.M.G.Minto, "Lightning protection of building," Wiring Installations and Supplies (published by the IET journal & magazines), vol. 1983, no. 16, pp. 5-10, April. 1983. https://doi.org/10.1049/wis.1983.0001
  23. H. Tettnang and Workgroup, Tabellenbuch Elekrotechnik, 22nd edition, 2007., Germany: Europa-Lehrmittel, 2007, pp. 238-239.
  24. Committees of the IEEE Standards, IEEE Guide for the Protection of Communication Installations from Lightning Effects., IEEE Std 1692-2011.
  25. P.Hasse and J.Wiesinger, EMV Blitz-schutzzonn Komzept, Munchen, Germany: Pflaum Verlag 1993.
  26. C.A. Charalambous, N.D. Kokkinos, and N. Christofides, "External Lightning Protection and Grounding in Large-Scale Photovoltaic Applications," IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility., vol. 56, no. 2, pp. 427-434, Aug. 2013.
  27. Thai Standard, Protection Against Lightning Part 3 Physical Damage to Structures and Life Hazard (The Engineering Institute of Thailand under H.M. The King's Patronage, EIT Standard, 2007-53). Bangkok, Thailand: Chulalongkorn University Press, 2007, Appendix F pp 1-2.
  28. DEHN+SOHNE, Blitzplaner 3. aktualisierte Auflage. Neumarkt, Germany: DEHN + SOHNE GmbH + Co.KG., 2013, Avaliable: http://www.dehn.at/deat/ blitzplaner, 17 Mb and printed book 488 pages, pp. 71-72.
  29. P. Hasse J. Wiesinger and W. Zischank, Handbuch fur Blitzschutz und Erdung, 5 Auflage. Munchen, Germany: Pflaum Verlag 2006.
  30. Y Kishimoto "Consideration of protection angle method and lightning protection rules for side of high rise buildings in IEC 62305 standard," The Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engi-neering (IEICE) Proceeding EMC 09, Kyoto Japan, 2009.
  31. T.Horvath, "The protection space proved to be an undefined term," 2012 International Conference on Lightning Protection (ICLP). pp. 4-5, Vienna, Austria, 2012.
  32. S.Ait-Amar and G.Berger, "A modified version of the rolling sphere method," IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation., vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 718-725, June 2009. https://doi.org/10.1109/TDEI.2009.5128511
  33. F.A.M.Rizk, "Modeling of lightning exposure of buildings and massive structures," IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery., vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 1987-1998, Oct. 2009. https://doi.org/10.1109/TPWRD.2009.2028759
  34. A.Haddad and D.F.Warne, Advances in High Voltage Engineering, IET Power and Series 49. London, UK: The Institution of Engineering and Technology, 2007, pp. 77-130.
  35. P.N. Mikropoulus, and T.E. Tsovilis, "Estimation of lightning incidence to overheard transmission lines," IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery., vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 1855-11865, July 2010. https://doi.org/10.1109/TPWRD.2010.2046918
  36. A.Borghetti, C.A.Nucci and M.Paolone, "Estimation of the statistical distribution of lightning current parameter at ground level from the data record by instrument tower," IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery., vol. 19, no. 3, pp.1400-1409, July 2004. https://doi.org/10.1109/TPWRD.2004.829116
  37. C.A.Nucci "A survey on cigre and ieee procedures for the estimation of the lightning performance of overhead transmission and distribution line," X International Symposium on Lightning Protection (XSIPDA)., Curitiba, Brazil, 2009.
  38. K.Gieck, Technische Formelsammlung. Germany: Heilbronn, 1981.
  39. R.E. Larson, R.P. Hostetler and B.H. Edward, Calculalus and Analytic Geometry 5th. Canada: D.C. Health, 1994.
  40. J.Repka, Calculalus and Analytic Geometry. USA: Wm.C.Brown, 1994.
  41. A.Sultan, "An ordinary but surprisingly powerful theorem," Australian Senior Mathematics Journal, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 47-58, 2009.
  42. S.C. Chapra and R.P. Canale, Numerical Methods for Engineers. Singapore: McGraw-Hill (Asia), 2006, pp. 11-926.
  43. J. H. Wilkinson, Rounding Errors in Algebraic Processes. Dover Publications, 1994.
  44. Rajaraman V, Computer oriented numerical methods. India: Prentice-Hall of India Private Limited. New Delhi.
  45. Major General Luang Wichitwathakan, History of Wat Khema-pirataram, Nonthaburi Province (fine art department of Ministry Culture, Thailand 1971)., Bangkok, Thailand 1971, pp. 1-78.