Determination of Additives Content in Aviation Turbine Fuel Using Multi-dimensional GC-MS

Multi-dimensional GC-MS를 이용한 항공터빈유의 첨가제 분석

  • Youn, Ju Min (Research Institute of Petroleum Technology, Korea Petroleum Quality & Distribution Authority) ;
  • Jang, Yoon Mi (Research Institute of Petroleum Technology, Korea Petroleum Quality & Distribution Authority) ;
  • Yim, Eui Soon (Research Institute of Petroleum Technology, Korea Petroleum Quality & Distribution Authority) ;
  • Kim, Seong Lyong (Propulsion Test and Evaluation Team, Korea Aerospace Research Institute) ;
  • Kang, Yong (Department of Chemical Engineering, Chungnam National University)
  • 연주민 (한국석유관리원 석유기술연구소) ;
  • 장윤미 (한국석유관리원 석유기술연구소) ;
  • 임의순 (한국석유관리원 석유기술연구소) ;
  • 김성룡 (한국항공우주연구원 추진시험평가팀) ;
  • 강용 (충남대학교 응용화학공학과)
  • Received : 2018.10.23
  • Accepted : 2018.12.24
  • Published : 2018.12.31


To improve fuel performance and specific characteristics of long storage and moving through fuel systems additives should be added in kerosene type aviation turbine fuel (AVTUR) such as antioxidant, fuel system icing inhibitor (FSII), electric conductivity improvers and so on. The dosage of additives has to be analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively due to inspect the quality of abnormal fuel and distinguish other petroleum products. Multi-dimensional GC-MS (MDGC-MS) with Deans switching technique are applied the determination of antioxidant and FSII, which are added with AVTUR containing complex mixture of hydrocarbons. Antioxidant and FSII in the range of 2.5-20 mg/L was quantitatively and qualitatively analyzed using MDGC-MS and the detection limit was about twice as low as that of the 1-dimensional GC-MS results. The method in this study has been higher peak resolution compared with GC-MS and could be simultaneously analyzed different two additives without sample pre-treatment.

HGOHBI_2018_v35n4_1260_f0001.png 이미지

Fig. 1. Configuration of a MDGC-MS system. 1. Sampling injection port 2. 1stdetector (FID) 3. 2nd detector (MSD) 4. Switching element

HGOHBI_2018_v35n4_1260_f0002.png 이미지

Fig. 2. Deans switching system in GC. 1. Pressure controller 2. 1st Detector (FID)

HGOHBI_2018_v35n4_1260_f0003.png 이미지

Fig. 3. FID chromatograms of DiEGME and antioxidants in ethanol with Deans switching in standby mode.

HGOHBI_2018_v35n4_1260_f0004.png 이미지

Fig. 4. A SCAN result obtained from each 100 mg/L DiEGME and antioxidants in ethanol with Deans switching in cut mode.

HGOHBI_2018_v35n4_1260_f0005.png 이미지

Fig. 5. 1st and 2nd dimension chromatogram of each 100 mg/L DiEGME and antioxidants in Jet A-1 fuel with Deans switching in cut mode

HGOHBI_2018_v35n4_1260_f0006.png 이미지

Fig. 6. Chromatogram of (a) blank Jet A-1 and (b) 10 mg/L of DiEGME and antioxidants in Jet A-1 obtained by GC-MS.

HGOHBI_2018_v35n4_1260_f0007.png 이미지

Fig. 7. Chromatogram of (a) blank Jet A-1 and (b) 10 mg/L of DiEGME and antioxidants in Jet A-1 obtained by MDGC-MS.

HGOHBI_2018_v35n4_1260_f0008.png 이미지

Fig. 8. Calibration curves for each DiEGME and antioxidants in Jet A-1 obtained by (a) GC-MS and (b) MDGC-MS. ☐ DiEGME ○ DTBP Δ DTBMP ∇ DMTBP

Table 1. Detailed information of additives for AVTUR

HGOHBI_2018_v35n4_1260_t0001.png 이미지

Table 2. Operating conditions of GC-MS

HGOHBI_2018_v35n4_1260_t0002.png 이미지

Table 3. Operating conditions of MDGC-MS

HGOHBI_2018_v35n4_1260_t0003.png 이미지

Table 4. SIM group of targeted compounds and start time in GC-MS and MDGC-MS

HGOHBI_2018_v35n4_1260_t0004.png 이미지

Table 5. Linearity and LOD of additives in AVTUR

HGOHBI_2018_v35n4_1260_t0005.png 이미지


  1. T. Edwards, "Liquid fuels and propellants for aerospace propulsion: 1903-2003", J. of Propulsion and Power, Vol. 19, pp. 1089-1107 (2003).
  2. CRC Report No. 663, Handbook of aviation fuel properties, 4th ed., pp. 36-38, Coordinating Research Council, Inc., Alpharetta, GA, USA (2014).
  3. ASTM D1655, "Standard Specification for Aviation Turbine Fuels", ASTM International, PA, USA (2018).
  4. Defence Standard 91-91 Issue 7 - Turbine Fuel, Kerosine Type, Jet A-1 (NATO Code: F-35 / Joint Service Designation: AVTUR), Ministry of Defence, UK (2015).
  5. MIL-DTL-83133J, "Turbine fuel, Aviation, Kerosene Type, JP-8 (NATO F-34), NATO F-35, and JP-8+100 (NATO F-37), Department of Defense", USA (2015).
  6. H. S. Shin, H. S. Ahn, D. G. Jung, "Determination of phenolic antioxidants in spilled aviation fuels by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry", Chromatographia, Vol. 58, pp. 495-499 (2003).
  7. H. S. Shin, H. S. Ahn, "Gas chromatography-mass spectrometric determination of traces of ether-type icing inhibitors in free-floating fuels", Chromatographia, Vol. 60, pp. 235-239 (2004).
  8. H. S. Ahn, "GC-MS determination of antioxidants in ground water contaminated with JP-8", Chromatographia, Vol. 66, pp. 893-897 (2007).
  9. Y. K. Lim, C. S. Jeong, K. W. Han, Y. J. Jang, "Analysis of jet fuel for the judgment of soil polluter", Appl. Chem. Eng., Vol. 25, pp. 27-33 (2014).
  10. ASTM D5006, "Standard Test Method for Measurement of Fuel System Icing Inhibitors (Ether Type) in Aviation Fuels", ASTM International, PA, USA (2016).
  11. IP 424, "Determination of Fuel System Icing Inhibitor Content of Aviation Turbine Kerosines by High Performance Liquid Chromatography", The Energy Institute, London, UK (2010).
  12. M. Bernabei, E. Spila, G. Sechi, "Determination of anti-icing additives in jet fuels", Analytical Letters, vol. 30, pp. 2085-2097 (1997).
  13. M. Bernabei, G. Bocchinfuso, P. Carrozzo, C. De Angelis, "Determination of phenolic antioxidant in aviation Jet fuel", J. Chromatogr. A, Vol. 871, pp. 235-241 (2000).
  14. P. M. Rawson, C. A. Stansfield, R. L. Webster, D. Evans, "Re-addition of antioxidant to aged MEROX and hydroprocessed jet fuels", Fuel, Vol. 139, pp. 652-658 (2015).
  15. Introduction of MDGCsolution, Shimadzu Application News, No. G255, Shimadzu, Japan.
  16. J. M. Youn, J. W. Doh, I. H. Hwang, S. L. Kim, Y. Kang, "Determination of fatty acid methyl ethers (FAME) content in aviation turbine fuel using multi-dimensional GC-MS", J. Oil & Appl. Sci., Vol. 34, pp. 717-726 (2017).