DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

The Original Concept of the Silk Road and Richthofen's Humanistic Ideas

  • Published : 2018.12.15

Abstract

The concept of the "Seidenstrassen" (Silk Road) was created by the German geographer F. von Richthofen (1833-1905) in 1877. The "Seidenstrassen" means communication between China and the Roman cultural area. To prove the route of dissemination of silk, Richthofen not only focused on geographical substantiality, based on the routes of the Chinese Zhang Qian and the Roman Ptolemy, but also on etymological, historical, and religious sources. In fact, his Silk Road concept has the trade of silk as well as the humanistic ideas of cultural exchange. It is worth noting that in his book China, Richthofen presented the Silk Road as a space-time concept that considers the length of space as well as the length of time by highlighting humanistic examples that came into modern times through the Sea Route. Later, the English term "Silk Road" appeared in 1938, the Japanese term "シルクロ-ド" (sirukurodo) in 1939, and the Korean term "실크로드" (silkrodeu) in 1952.

E1SRAQ_2018_v3n2_1_f0001.png 이미지

Fig. 1) White line: Richthofen’s Seidenstrassen, based on Ptolemy’s map

E1SRAQ_2018_v3n2_1_f0002.png 이미지

Fig. 2) Ptolemy’s map: North East Part of Asia

E1SRAQ_2018_v3n2_1_f0003.png 이미지

Fig. 3) Ada Takeo’s map

References

  1. Adachi, Kiroku. "Uber die 'Seidenstrasse.'" Research for History Studies 99 (1939).
  2. Boulnois, L. La Route de la Soie. Tokyo: Kawadeshobanshin-sha, 1980.
  3. Brosset, M. "Relation du pays de Taiwan, traduit du Chinois." Nouveau Journal Asiatique II (1828): 418-450.
  4. Bushell, Stephen W. Chinese Art, Vol. I. London: Wyman and Sons, 1904.
  5. Cho, Jwa-ho. World Cultural History. Seoul: Jeilmunwha-sa Publication, 1952.
  6. Cook, Frederic Charles, ed. The Holy Bible, According to the Authorized Version, A.D. 1611, Vol. 6. London: John Murray, 1876.
  7. D'Anville, Jean. "Recherches Geographiques et Historiques sur la Seriquie des Anciens." Memoires de l'Academie Royale des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres XXXII (1768): 84-141.
  8. De Guignes, Joseph. "Idee Generale du Commerce et des Liaisons que les Chinois ont Eues avec les Nations Occidentales." Memoires de l'Academie Royale des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres XLVI (1793): 534-579.
  9. De Lacouperie, Terrien. Western Origin of the Early Chinese Civilization from 2,300 BC to 200 AD. London: Asher & Co., 1894.
  10. Frankopan, Peter. The Silk Roads: A New History of the World. London: Bloomsbury, 2015.
  11. Fujita, Toyohachi. "Record of Southwest Maritime Transportation in Former Han Dynaty." In Studies of East-West Interaction History - Southern Sea Part, edited by Ikeuchi Hiroshi. Tokyo: Okaishoin, 1932.
  12. Hansen, Valerie. The Silk Road: A New History. New York: Oxford University Press, 2012.
  13. Harper, Prudence O. Silver Vessels of the Sasanian Period. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1981.
  14. Hedin, Sven. "Rediscovering the Silk Road." The Rotarian LII, no. 2 (1938).
  15. Herodotos. Histories Aposexis. Translated by Chun Byong-hi. Seoul: Sup Publication, 2009.
  16. Herrmann, Albert. "Die alten Seidenstrassen zwischen China und Syrien." PhD diss., Gottingen University, 1910.
  17. Herrmann, Albert. Die alten Seidenstrassen zwischen China und Syrien. Berlin: Weidmannsche Buchhandlung, 1910.
  18. Hess, Willy. Die Werke Sven Hedins. Stockholm: Statens Ethnografiska Museum, 1962.
  19. Hirth, F. China and the Roman Orien. Shanghai: Kelly & Walsh, 1885.
  20. Hirth, F.. "Syrisch-Beziehungen im Anfang unserer Zeitrechnung." In Durch Syrien und Kleinasien, edited by R. Oberhummer and Heinrich Zimmerer, 436-449. Berlin: Reimer, 1899.
  21. Jeong, Jaehun. The History of Turk Nomadic Empire (552-745). Seoul: Sakyejul, 2016.
  22. Kim, Chung Se. "Ein Fragment des Pratimoksa aus Turfan." Asia Major 2 (1925): 597-608.
  23. Kokka editor. "Mr. Richthofen Pass Away," Kokka 16, no. 186 (1905): 145
  24. Kwon, Young-pil. "Richthofen's Perspective of Asia," Presentation at a workshop by the Korean Association of Central Asian Studies, January 25, 2013.
  25. Kwon, Young-pil. Silk Road's Ethos. Seoul: Hakyon Publishers, 2017.
  26. Legge, James. The Chinese Classics, with a Translation, Critical and Exegetical Notes, Prolegomena and Copious Indexes. Hong Kong: At the Authors, 1865.
  27. Liu, Yingsheng. Silk Road Culture: Sea Route Part. Zhejiang: Zhejiang People's Publishing House, 1996.
  28. Ma, Huan. Ying-yai Sheng-lan: The Overall Survey of the Ocean's Shores. Bangkok: White Lotus Press, 1977.
  29. Matsuda, Hisao. Exchange between East and West. Tokyo: Shibundo, 1962.
  30. Matsuda, Hisao. Cross-Cultural Exchange between East and West. Tokyo: Shibundo, 1962.
  31. Nagasawa, Kazutoshi. Cultural History of Silk Road I. Tokyo: Hakusuisha Co., 1983.
  32. Nagasawa, Kazutoshi. Zhang Qian and Silk Road. Tokyo: Shimizu Shoin Ltd., 1984.
  33. Pagani, Lelio. "Claudii Ptolemaei Cosmographia." In Ptolemaei Cosmographia, edited by Lelio Pagani, translated by Takeuchi Keiichi, Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten Publishers, 1978.
  34. Pagani, Lelio ed. Ptolemaei Cosmographia. Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten Publishers, 1978.
  35. Pardessus, M. "Memoires sur le Commerce de Soie Chez les Anciens." Memoires de l'Academie Royale des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres XV (1842): 1-47.
  36. Pinkerton, John, ed. A General Collection of the Best and Most Interesting Voyages and Travels in All Parts of the World. London: Longman, 1808.
  37. Reinaud, J. T. Relations des Voyages Faits par les Arabes et les Persans dans l'Inde et la Chine dans le IXe de l're Siecle de L'Ere Chretienne. Paris: Imprimerie Royale, 1845.
  38. Research Center for Silk Roadology ed. Advocacy of Silk Roadology. Tokyo: Shogakukan Publisher, 1994.
  39. Shiratori, Gurakichi. Research for the History of Western Region. Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten Publishers, 1970.
  40. Takeo, Ada. "Ptolemaei Cosmographia Definition." In Ptolemaei Cosmographia, edited by Lelio Pagani, translated by Takeuchi Keiichi. Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten Publishers, 1978.
  41. Tashakori, Abbas. "Iran in Chinese Dynastic Histories - A Study of Iran's Relations with China Prior to the Arab Conquest." Master's thesis, Australian National University, 1974.
  42. The Book of Sui (隋書).
  43. The Book of Han (漢書).
  44. The Brief History of Wei (魏略).
  45. Von Richthofen, F. China: Ergebnisse eigener Reisen und Darauf Gegrundeter Studien. Berlin: Verlag von Dietrich Reimer, 1877.
  46. Von Richthofen, F. Richthofen's Sojourn in Japan. Fukuoka: Publication of Kyushu University, 2012.
  47. Waugh, Daniel C. "Richthofen's 'Silk Roads': Toward the Archaeology of a Concept." The Silk Road 5, no. 1 (Summer 2007): 1-10.
  48. Yoshida, T. "Entwicklung des Seidenhandels und der Seidenindustrie vom Altertums bis zum Ausgang des Mittelalters." PhD diss., Heidelberg University, 1894.
  49. Yule, Henry. Cathay and the Way Thither, Vol. 1. London: Hakluyt Society, 1866.
  50. Yule, Henry. Cathay and the Way Thither - Being a Collection of Medieval Notices of China. London: Hakluyt Society, 1915.
  51. Zammito, John H. Kant, Herder, and the Birth of Anthropology. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2002.
  52. Zhao, Feng. History of Chinese Silk Art. Beijing: Cultural Relics Press, 2005.