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Preventive effects of crocin on neuronal damages induced by D-galactose through AGEs and oxidative stress in human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y)

  • Heidari, Somaye (Department of Pharmacodynamics and Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences) ;
  • Mehri, Soghra (Pharmaceutical Research Center, Pharmaceutical Technology Institute, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences) ;
  • Shariaty, Vahidesadat (Pharmaceutical Research Center, Pharmaceutical Technology Institute, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences) ;
  • Hosseinzadeh, Hossein (Department of Pharmacodynamics and Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences)
  • Received : 2017.07.02
  • Accepted : 2018.02.26
  • Published : 2018.03.31

Abstract

Objective: D-galactose (D-gal) is well-known agent to induce aging process. In the present study, we selected crocin, the main constituent of Crocus sativus L. (saffron), against D-gal- induced cytotoxicity in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Methods: Pretreated cells with crocin ($25-500{\mu}M$, 24 h) were exposed to D-gal (25-400 mM, 48 h). The MTT assay was used for determination cell viability. Dichlorofluorescin diacetate assay (DCF-DA) and senescence associated ${\beta}$-galactosidase staining assay (SA-${\beta}$-gal) were used to evaluate the generation of reactive oxygen species and beta-galactosidase as an aging marker, respectively. Also advanced glycation end products (AGEs) expression which is known as the main mechanism of age-related diseases was measured by western blot analysis. Results: The findings of our study showed that treatment of cells with D-gal (25-400 mM) for 48h decreased cell viability concentration dependency. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels which are known as main factors in age-related diseases increased from $100{\pm}8%$ in control group to $132{\pm}22%$ in D-gal (200 mM) treated cells for 48h. The cytotoxic effects of D-gal decreased with 24h crocin pretreatment of cells. The cell viability at concentrations of $100{\mu}M$, $200{\mu}M$ and $500{\mu}M$ increased and ROS production decreased at concentrations of 200 and $500{\mu}M$ to $111.5{\pm}6%$ and $108{\pm}5%$, respectively. Also lysosomal biomarker of aging and carboxymethyl lysine (CML) expression as an AGE protein, significantly increased in D-gal 200 mM group after 48h incubation compare to control group. Pre-treatment of SHSY-5Y cells with crocin ($500{\mu}M$) before adding D-gal significantly reduced aging marker and CML formation. Conclusion: Treatment of SH-SY5Y cells with crocin before adding of D-gal restored aging effects of D-gal concentration dependency. These findings indicate that crocin has potent anti- aging effects through inhibition of AGEs and ROS production.

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