DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Ultrastructures of Colletotrichum orbiculare in Cucumber Leaves Expressing Systemic Acquired Resistance Mediated by Chlorella fusca

  • Kim, Su Jeung (Biotech Center, Pohang University of Science and Technology) ;
  • Ko, Eun Ju (College of Applied Life Science, Sustainable Agriculture Research Institute, Jeju National University) ;
  • Hong, Jeum Kyu (Department of Horticultural Science, Gyeongnam National University of Science and Technology (GNTech)) ;
  • Jeun, Yong Chull (College of Applied Life Science, Sustainable Agriculture Research Institute, Jeju National University)
  • Received : 2017.09.29
  • Accepted : 2017.12.28
  • Published : 2018.04.01

Abstract

Chlorella, one single-cell green algae organism that lives autotrophically by photosynthesis, can directly suppress some plant diseases. The objective of this study was to determine whether pre-spraying with Chlorella fusca suspension could induce systemic acquired resistance (SAR) in cucumber plants against anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum orbiculare. In order to illustrate SAR induced by algae, infection structures in host cells were observed under a transmission electron microscope (TEM). Cytological changes as defense responses of host mesophyll cells such as accumulation of vesicles, formation of sheath around penetration hyphae, and thickness of cell wells adjoining with intracellular hyphae were demonstrated in cucumber leaves. Similar defense responses were also found in the plant pre-treated with DL-3-aminobutyric acid, another SAR priming agent. Images showed that defense response of host cells was scarcely observed in untreated leaf tissues. These cytological observations suggest that C. fusca could induce SAR against anthracnose in cucumber plants by activating defense responses of host cells.

Keywords

algae;anthracnose;DL-3-aminobutyric acid (BABA);infection structure;plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR)

Acknowledgement

Supported by : Jeju National University

References

  1. Arita, C. E. Q., Peebles, C. and Bradley, T. H. 2015. Scalability of combining microalgae-based biofuels with wastewater facilities: a review. Algal Res. 9:160-169. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.algal.2015.03.001
  2. Bailey, J. A., O'Connell, R. J., Pring, R. J. and Nash, C. 1992. Infection strategies of Colletotrichum species. In: Colletotrichum: biology, pathology and control, eds. by J. A. Bailey and M. J. Jeger, pp. 88-120. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.
  3. Bhatt, N. C., Panwar, A., Bisht, T. S. and Tamta, S. 2014. Coupling of algal biofuel production with wastewater. Sci. World J. 2014:210504.
  4. Cohen, Y. R. 2002. ${\beta}$-aminobutyric acid-induced resistance against plant pathogens. Plant Dis. 86:448-457. https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS.2002.86.5.448
  5. Chiu, S. Y., Kao, C. Y., Chen, T. Y., Chang, Y. B., Kuo, C. M. and Lin, C. S. 2015. Cultivation of microalgal Chlorella for biomass and lipid production using w stewater as nutrient resource. Bioresour. Technol. 184:179-189. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2014.11.080
  6. Filippi, M. C. C., Barata da Silva, G., Silva-Lobo, V. L., Cortes, M. V. C. B., Moraes, A. J. G. and Prabhu, A. S. 2011. Leaf blast (Magnaporthe oryzae) suppression and growth promotion by rhizobacteria on aerobic rice in Brazil. Biol. Control. 58:160-166. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocontrol.2011.04.016
  7. Gozzo, F. and Faoro, F. 2013. Systemic acquired resistance (50 years after discovery): moving from the lab to the field. J. Agric. Food Chem. 61:12473-12491. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf404156x
  8. Hayat, M. A. 1989. Principles and techniques of electron microscopy: biological applications. 3rd ed. The Macmillan Press LTD.
  9. Jeun, Y. C. and Buchenauer, H. 2001. Infection structures and localization of the pathogenesis-related protein AP24 in leaves of tomato plants exhibiting systemic acquired resistance against Phytophthora infestans after pre-treatment with 3-aminobutyric acid or tobacco necrosis virus. J. Phytopathol. 149:141-153. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1439-0434.2001.00594.x
  10. Jeun, Y. C., Kim, K. W., Kim, K. D. and Hyun, J. W. 2007. Comparative ultrastructure of cucumbers pre-treated with plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria, DL-3-aminobutyric acid or amino salicylic acid after inoculation with Colletotrichum orbiculare. J. Phytopathol. 155:416-425. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0434.2007.01252.x
  11. Jeun, Y. C., Park, K. S., Kim, C. H., Fowler, W. D. and Kloepper, J. W. 2004. Cytological observations of cucumber plants during induced resistance elicited by rhizobacteria. Biol. Control. 29:34-42. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1049-9644(03)00082-3
  12. Jeun, Y. C. 2000. Immunolocalization of PR-protein P14 in leaves of tomato plants exhibiting systemic acquired resistance against Phytophthora infestans induced by pretreatment with 3-aminobutyric acid and preinoculation with Tobacco necrosis virus. J. Plant Dis. Protect. 107:352-367.
  13. Jeun, Y. C., Sigrist, J. and Buchenauer, H. 2000. Biochemical and cytological studies on mechanisms of systemically induced resistance in tomato plants against Phytophthora infestans. J. Phytopathol. 148:129-140.
  14. Kim, M. J., Shim, C. K., Kim, Y. K., Hong, S. J., Park, J. H., Han, E. J., Jee, H. J., Lee, S. B. and Kim, S. C. 2015. Effect of Chlorella sp. on improving antioxidant activities and growth promotion in organic soybean sprout cultivation. Korean J. Org. Agric. 23:939-950. https://doi.org/10.11625/KJOA.2015.23.4.939
  15. Kim, M. J., Shim, C. K., Kim, Y. K., Hong, S. J., Park, J. H., Han, E. J., Jee, H. J., Yun, J. C. and Kim, S. C. 2014a. Isolation and morphological identification of fresh water green algae from organic farming habitats in Korea. Korean J. Org. Agric. 22:743-760. https://doi.org/10.11625/KJOA.2014.22.4.743
  16. Kim, M. J., Shim, C. K., Kim, Y. K., Park, J. H., Hong, S. J., Ji, H. J., Han, E. J. and Yoon, J. C. 2014b. Effect of Chlorella vulgaris CHK0008 fertilization on enhancement of storage and freshness in organic strawberry and leaf vegetables. Korean J. Hortic. Sci. Technol. 32:872-878 (in Korean). https://doi.org/10.7235/hort.2014.14107
  17. Lamb, C. and Dixon, R. A. 1997. The oxidative burst in plant disease resistance. Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. Plant Mol. Biol. 48:251-275. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.arplant.48.1.251
  18. Lee, Y. J., Ko, Y. J. and Jeun, Y. C. 2016. Illustration of disease suppression of anthracnose on cucumber leaves by treatment with Chlorella fusca. Res. Plant Dis. 22:257-263 (in Korean). https://doi.org/10.5423/RPD.2016.22.4.257
  19. Lee, Y. J., Kim, S. J. and Jeun, Y. C. 2017. Ultra-structural observations of Colletotrichum orbiculare on cucumber leaves pre-treated with Chlorella fusca. Res. Plant Dis. 23:42-48 (in Korean). https://doi.org/10.5423/RPD.2017.23.1.42
  20. Martins, S. J., Vasconcelos de Medeiros, F. H., Magela de Souza, R., Vilela de Resende, M. L. and Ribeiro Junior, P. M. 2013. Biological control of bacterial wilt of common bean by plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria. Biol. Control. 66:65-71. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocontrol.2013.03.009
  21. Matusiak, K. and Krzywicka, A. 1975. Influence of the extract of Chlorella vulgaris on growth of fungi. Acta. Microbiol. Pol. Ser. B 7:51-54.
  22. Reynolds, E. S. 1963. The use of lead citrate at high pH as an electron opaque stain in electron microscopy. J. Cell Biol. 17:208. https://doi.org/10.1083/jcb.17.1.208
  23. Sarma, B. K., Yadav, S. K., Singh, S. and Singh, H. B. 2015. Microbial consortium-mediated plant defense against phytopathogens: Readdressing for enhancing efficacy. Soil Biol. Biochem. 87:25-33. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2015.04.001
  24. Sharon, M., Freeman, S. and Sneh, B. 2011. Assessment of resistance pathways induced in Arabidopsis thaliana by hypovirulent Rhizoctonia spp. isolates. Phytopathology. 101:828-838. https://doi.org/10.1094/PHYTO-09-10-0247
  25. Siegrist, J., Orober, M. and Buchenauer, H. 2000. Beta-aminobutyric acid-mediated enhancement of resistance in tobacco to tobacco mosaic virus depends on the accumulation of salicylic acid. Physiol. Mol. Plant Pathol. 56:95-106. https://doi.org/10.1006/pmpp.1999.0255
  26. Spurr, A. R. 1969. A low-viscosity epoxy resin embedding medium for electron microscopy. J. Ultrastruct. Res. 26:31. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-5320(69)90033-1
  27. Sticher, L., Mauch-Mani, B. and Metraux, J. P. 1997. Systemic acquired resistance. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 35:235-270. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.phyto.35.1.235
  28. Van Loon, L. C., Bakker, P. A. H. M. and Pieterse, C. M. J. 1998. Systemic resistance induced by rhizosphere bacteria. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 36:453-483. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.phyto.36.1.453