Functional and sensory characteristics of kiwifruit jangachi cured with traditional Korean sauces, doenjang and kochujang

된장과 고추장 키위장아찌의 기능성 및 관능 특성

  • Received : 2018.01.11
  • Accepted : 2018.03.12
  • Published : 2018.04.30


This study aimed to compare total phenolic, total flavonoid, and vitamin C contents, antioxidant capacities, and sensory characteristics of jangachi made from green kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa cv. Hayward) and golden kiwifruit (A. chinensis cv. Hort16A), which were cured with doenjang and kochujang. Golden kiwifruit had higher total phenolic, total flavonoid, and vitamin C contents, and antioxidant capacities than green kiwifruit. Jangachi of both cultivars of kiwifruit had generally higher total phenolic and flavonoid contents, and antioxidant capacities than fresh kiwifruit. Doenjang jangachi of kiwifruit had higher total phenolic contents and antioxidant capacities than kochujang jangachi. Jangachi made from golden kiwifruit cured with kochujang, following pretreatment with sugar solution, had the highest overall quality on sensory evaluation among jangachies tested herein. Together, our findings suggest that kiwifruit jangachi may serve as a good dietary source of phenolics and antioxidants.


flavonoids;golden kiwifruit;green kiwifruit;phenolics;sensory evaluation


Supported by : 농림수산식품부


  1. Brand-Williams W, Cuvelier M, Berset C. Use of a free radical method to evaluate antioxidant activity. LWT-Food Sci. Technol. 28: 25-30 (1995)
  2. Bravo L. Polyphenols: Chemistry, dietary sources, metabolism, and nutritional significance. Nutr. Rev. 56: 317-333 (1998)
  3. Campos MRS, Gomez KR, Ordonez YM, Ancona DB. Polyphenols, ascorbic acid and carotenoids contents and antioxidant properties of habanero pepper (Capsicum chinense) fruit. Food Nutr. Sci. 4: 47-54 (2013)
  4. Cho KM, Lee JH, Yun HD, Ahn BY, Kim H, Seo WT. Changes of phytochemical constituents (isoflavones, flavanols, and phenolic acids) during cheonggukjang soybeans fermentation using potential probiotics Bacillus subtilis CS90. J. Food Compos. Anal. 24: 402-410 (2011)
  5. Harvey JM, Harris CM. In-storage softening of kiwi fruit: effects of delayed cooling. Int. J. Refrig. 9: 352-356 (1986)
  6. Islam MN, Flink N. Dehydration of potato. Int. J. Food Sci. Technol. 17: 387-403 (1982)
  7. Jia Z, Tang M, Wu J. The determination of flavonoid contents in mulberry and their scavenging effects on superoxide radicals. Food Chem. 64: 555-559 (1999)
  8. Jung KA, Song TC, Han D, Kim IH, Kim YE, Lee CH. Cardiovascular protective properties of kiwifruit extracts in vitro. Biol. Pharm. Bull. 28: 1782-1785 (2005)
  9. Kang JH, Jo YS, Cheon IK, Lee SJ. Evaluation of shelter effect of porous wind fences for protecting kiwifruit plants. Korean Soc. Mech. Eng. 11: 5-8 (2006)
  10. KFDA. Food code. Seoul, Korea. pp. 78-80 (2011)
  11. Kim DO, Lee CY. Comprehensive study on vitamin C equivalent antioxidant capacity (VCEAC) of various polyphenolics in scavenging a free radical and its structural relationship. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 44: 253-273 (2004)
  12. Kwak CS, Son D, Chung YS, Kwon YH. Antioxidant activity and anti-inflammatory activity of ethanol extract and fractions of Doenjang in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Nutr. Res. Pract. 9: 569-578 (2015)
  13. Lee SY, Baik SH, Ahn YJ, Song J, Kim JH, Choi HS. Quality characteristics of commercial Korean types of fermented soybean sauces in China. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 45: 796-800 (2013)
  14. Lee I, Im S, Jin CR, Heo HJ, Cho YS, Baik MY, Kim DO. Effect of maturity stage at harvest on antioxidant capacity and total phenolics in kiwifruits (Actinidia spp.) grown in Korea. Hortic. Environ. Biotechnol. 56: 841-848 (2015a)
  15. Lee I, Lee BH, Eom SH, Oh CS, Kang H, Cho YS, Kim DO. Antioxidant capacity and protective effects on neuronal PC-12 cells of domestic bred kiwifruit. Korean Soc. Hortic. Sci. 33: 259-267 (2015b)
  16. Lee SK, Kader AA. Preharvest and postharvest factors influencing vitamin C content of horticultural crops. Posthar. Biol. Technol. 20: 207-220 (2000)
  17. Lim YJ, Oh CS, Park YD, Kim DO, Kim UJ, Cho YS, Eom SH. Physiological components of kiwifruits with in vitro antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities. Food Sci. Biotechnol. 23: 943-949 (2014)
  18. Marinova D, Ribarova F, Atanassova M. Total phenolics and total flavonoids in Bulgarian fruits and vegetables. J. Univ. Chem. Tech. Metall. 40: 255-260 (2005)
  19. Morimoto K, Furuta E, Hashimoto H, Inouye K. Effects of high concentration of salts on the esterase activity and structure of a kiwifruit peptidase, actinidain. J. Biochem. 139: 1065-1071 (2006)
  20. Nam TG, Kim DO, Eom SH. Effects of light sources on major flavonoids and antioxidant activity in common buckwheat sprouts. Food Sci. Biotechnol. 27: 169-176 (2018)
  21. Nam YR, Won SB, Chung YS, Kwak CS, YH Kwon. Inhibitory effects of Doenjang, Korean traditional fermented soybean paste, on oxidative stress and inflammation in adipose tissue of mice fed a high-fat diet. Nutr. Res. Pract. 9: 235-241 (2015)
  22. Nishiyama I, Yamashita Y, Yamanaka M, Shimohashi A, Fukuda T, Oota T. Varietal difference in vitamin C content in the fruit of kiwifruit and other Actinidia species. J. Agric. Food Chem. 52: 5472-5475 (2004)
  23. Park JW, Lee YJ, Yoon S. Total flavonoids and phenolics in fermented soy products and their effects on antioxidant activities determined by different assays. J. Korean Soc. Food Cult. 22: 353-358 (2007)
  24. Park YS, Namiesnik J, Vearasilp K, Leontowicz H, Leontowicz M, Barasch D, Nemirovski A, Trakhtenberg S, Gorinstein S. Bioactive compounds and the antioxidant capacity in new kiwi fruit cultivars. Food Chem. 165: 354-361 (2014)
  25. Pratt DE, Birac PM. Source of antioxidant activity soybeans and soy products. J. Food Sci. 44: 1720-1722 (1979)
  26. RDA. FTA corresponding measures by item competitiveness (kiwi fruits). Jeonju, Korea. 16: 1-60 (2012)
  27. Santos PHS, Silva MA. Retention of vitamin C in drying processes of fruits and vegetables-A review. Dry. Technol. 26: 1421-1437 (2008)
  28. Sereno AM, Moreira R, Martinez E. Mass transfer coeffcients during osmotic dehydration of apple in single and combined aqueous solutions of sugar and salt. J. Food Eng. 47: 43-49 (2001)
  29. Sheo HJ. The antibacterial action of garlic, onion, ginger and red pepper juice. J. Korean Soc. Food Sci. Nutr. 28: 94-99 (1999)
  30. Shon MY, Lee J, Choi JH, Choi SY, Nam SH, Seo KI, Lee SW, Sung NJ, Park SK. Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of methanol extract of chungkukjang. J. Food Compos. Anal. 20: 113-118 (2007)
  31. Shukla S, Park J, Kim DH, Hong SY, Lee JS, Kim M. Total phenolic content, antioxidant, tyrosinase and ${\alpha}$-glucosidase inhibitory activities of water soluble extracts of noble starter culture Doenjang, a Korean fermented soybean sauce variety. Food Control 59: 854-861 (2016)
  32. Sim KH, Sil HY. Antioxidant activities of red pepper (Capsicum annuum) pericarp and seed extracts. Int. J. Food Sci. Technol. 43: 1813-1823 (2008)
  33. Singleton VL, Rossi JA, Jr. Colorimetry of total phenolics with phosphomolybdic- phosphotungstic acid reagents. Am. J. Enol. Vitic. 16: 144-158 (1965)
  34. Wang M, Li J, Rangarajan M, Shao Y, LaVoie EJ, Huang T-C, Ho C-T. Antioxidative phenolic compounds from Sage (Salvia officinalis). J. Agric. Food Chem. 46: 4869-4873 (1998)
  35. Ward C, Courtney D. Kiwifruit: taking its place in the global fruit bowl. pp 1-14. In: Advances in Food and Nutrition Research. Boland M and Moughan PJ (eds.). Elsevier, Amsterdam, Netherlands (2013)
  36. Xiao Y, Fan J, Chen Y, Rui X, Zhang Q, Dong M. Enhanced total phenolic and isoflavone aglycone content, antioxidant activity and DNA damage protection of soybeans processed by solid state fermentation with Rhizopus oligosporus RT-3. R. Soc. Chem. 6: 29741-29756 (2016)