Commentary on Soft Ground TBM Tunnel Face Support Calculation Methods

연약지반 TBM 터널 막장지보 계산방법 해설

  • Published : 2018.04.30


The German Tunnelling Committee (DAUB) recently published new recommendations for face support calculations; Zdenek Zizka and Markus Thewes of Ruhr University Bochum actively discuss and explain these new recommendations where these recommendations are intended to assist in choosing between various calculation methods which are also dependent on ground conditions. The guidelines also discuss important scientific approaches with face stability calculations, mainly those due to earth pressure and groundwater pressure on the tunnel face. This paper aims to explain these recommendations through Zdenek Zizak and Markus Thewes's discussion on these Tunnel Face Support Calculation Methods.


  1. Anagnostou, G., 2012, "The contribution of horizontal arching to tunnel face stability." Geotechnik 35 (2012), Heft 1, 34-44.
  2. Anagnostou G. and Kovari, K., 1994, "The Face Stability in Slurry-shield-driven Tunnels." Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, No. 2, 1994, 165-174.
  3. Davis E.H., Gunn M.J, Mair R.J., Seneviratne H.N., 1980, "The stability of shallow tunnels and underground openings in cohesive material," Geotechnique 30 (4), 397-416.
  4. Horn, N., 1961, "Horizontaler Erddruck auf senkrechte Abschlussflachen von Tunnelrohren. In Landeskonferenz der Ungarishchen Tiefbauindustrie, 7-16 (in German).
  5. Hu, X., Zhang, Z., Kieffer S., 2012, "A real-life stability model for a large shield driven tunnel in heterogeneous soft soils," Front. Struct. Civ. Eng. 2012, 6(2), 176-187.
  6. Jancsecz S. and Steiner W., 1994, "Face support for a large mix-shield in heterogeneous ground conditions, in Proc Tunneling '94," 531-550.
  7. Kirsch A., 2009, "On the face stability of shallow tunnels in sand," No. 16 in Advances in Geotechnical Engineering and tunnelling, PhD Thesis, University of Innsbruck, Logos, Berlin.
  8. Leca, E and Dormieux, L., 1990, "Upper and lower bound solutions for the face stability of shallow circular tunnels in frictional material," Geotechnique, Vol. 40, no. 4, 581-605.
  9. Mollon G., Dias D., Soubra A.h., 2010, "Face stability analysis of circular tunnels driven by a pressurized shield," J. Geotech. Geoenvir Eng., 136, 215-29.
  10. "Eisenbahntunnel planen, bauen und instand halten, Aktualisierung 2013, Deutsche Bahn AG (in German).
  11. "Recommendations for Face Support Pressure Calculations for Shield Tunnelling in Soft Ground," 2016. DAUB, ITA-AITES, Version 10.
  12. Vu M. N., Broere W., Bosch J., 2015, "The impact of shallow cover on stability when tunnelling in soft soils, Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology 50, 507-515.
  13. Zusatzliche Technische Vertragsbedingungen und Richtlinien fur Ingenieurbauten (short for ZTV-ING) - Teil 5 Tunnelbau, 2012, Bundesanstalt fur Strassenwesen (in German).
  14. Broms B., and Bennermark H., 1967, "Stability of clay in vertical openings," Journal of the Geotechnical Engineering Division," ASCE 1967; 193, 71-94.