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Comparison of Rainfall-Runoff Characteristics at Stream in Urban and Rural Watershed

도시 및 농촌 유역 하천에서의 강우유출 특성 비교

  • Received : 2018.10.06
  • Accepted : 2018.11.28
  • Published : 2018.11.30

Abstract

The objective of this study was to compare the rainfall-runoff characteristics in streams of classified urban and rural watershed using land use and population density. EMC (event mean concentration) of BOD, COD, TP and SS increased significantly in urban and rural watershed, but that of TN remained unchanged. Although there were no significant differences in EMC of BOD, COD, TN, TP depending on the watershed characteristics, EMC of BOD and COD significantly increased in the urban watershed, while EMC of TP increased in the rural watershed. In the urban watershed, the first flush time was faster and the first flush effect was stronger in BOD, COD, and TP. However, the difference between cumulative mass and cumulative volume was found to be less than 0.2 in the rural watershed, indicating a weak first flush effect. The discharged masses of BOD (70 %), COD (64 %), and TP (66 %) in the first flush of runoff were higher in urban watershed, while TN (67 %) was higher in rural watershed. The reproducibility of first flush time and the strength of first flush using CV (coefficient of variation) was found to be more reproducible for first flush time in both watersheds. In rural watershed, the CV value of first flush time for TP out of water quality parameters was lower. Whereas the CV values of first flush time for BOD, COD and TP in urban watersheds were similar.

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Fig. 1. The map of the study sites.

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Fig. 2. Comparison of EMC and TN/TP before and after rainfall-runoff at streams in urban and rural watershed. a, b indicates significant difference.

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Fig. 3. The event mean concentration and discharge load at study sites.

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Fig. 4. Comparison of (a) first flush time and (b) the difference of cumulative mass and volume at streams in urban and rural watershed.

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Fig. 5. The relationship between watershed area and first flush time.

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Fig. 6. The relationship between watershed area and the difference of cumulative mass and volume.

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Fig. 7. Comparison of the CV value of cumulative (mass-volume) and first flush time at streams in urban and rural watershed.

Table 1. Population density and land use in the watershed of this study sites (2016)

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Table 2. Summary of rainfall events

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Table 3. EMC(Event Mean Concentration) in each sites during rainfall events

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Table 4. Cumulative volume and mass rate at the time showing first flush effect

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Acknowledgement

Grant : 한강수계 지류지천 수질유량 모니터링

Supported by : 한강수계관리위원회

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