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Optimization of Jirisan Mountain Cudrania tricuspidata leaf substance extraction across solvents and temperatures

  • Kim, Yong Ju (Department of Herbal Medicine Resources, College of Environmental and Bioresource Sciences, Chonbuk National University)
  • Received : 2018.03.08
  • Accepted : 2018.05.16
  • Published : 2018.06.30

Abstract

Objective: The aim of this study is to optimize the extraction of beneficial substance from Cudrania tricuspidata leaves grown at Jirisan Mountain in South Korea by three different solvents depending on extraction time and at different temperature. Methods: The total phenolic contents were determined by the method reported by $S{\acute{a}}nchez$-Moreno et al. The total flavonoid contents were analyzed by Slinkard and Singleton. The DPPH radical scavenging activity was determined according to the method reported by Blois Results: The extraction yield for each solvent is 9.05-14.1%, 2.17-5.67%, and 2.3-3.9% for D.W., ethanol, and hexane, respectively. The overall results were maximized for the extract obtained with D.W. for 5 min at $100^{\circ}C$. The average phenol contents were 77.11, 45.64, and 0.343 mg/g at $100^{\circ}C$ in water, $78^{\circ}C$ in ethanol, and $68^{\circ}C$ in hexane, respectively. The flavonoid contents were the highest in the materials extracted with D.W., and were increased with increasing temperature, regardless of the extraction solvents, whether water (green), polar organic ethanol, or nonpolar organic hexane. In the ethanol extract, the flavonoid contents are increased gradually from 5.66 mg/g to 7.73 mg/g. The total flavonoid contents were proportional to the concentrations of the water extracts, ranging from 4.14 mg/g to 48.89 mg/g. The antioxidative activities of the water-extracted compounds are generally increased with increasing temperature from 42.5% to 85.5%. Those of the hexane extracts are increased slowly from 3.79% to 8.8%, while those of ethanol extracts are increased from 29.8% to 47.4%. Conclusion: The extraction yields were dependent upon solvents for extraction as well as extraction time and the temperature. The optimal extraction time was 5 min and the extraction yields were increased with increasing temperature excepted hexane. Of the three tested extraction solvents, the greenest solvent of water shows excellent results, suggesting that water is among the most effective solvents for natural sample extractions for general medicinal, pharmaceutical, and food applications.

Keywords

bioactivity;Cudrania tricuspidata;green extraction;organic solvent

Acknowledgement

Supported by : National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF)

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