- Volume 3 Issue 1
This study aims to contrast phonological characteristics of Korean and Turkish in terms of language universality. Considering consonants, both languages have the same number of consonants (21), which is the most typologically plausible structure of consonants. Thus, it can be said that they display high universality in the number of consonants. However, Turkish shows higher universality in regards to their substance, i.e., it differs from Korean when it comes to the structure of plosives and affricates. Turkish has two contrastive consonants, i.e., voiced and voiceless. However, the Korean plosives and affricates consist of neutral, tense and aspirate voiceless. In the case of vowels, both Korean with 10 vowels and Turkish with 8 vowels show lower universality. Yet, all of those vowels belong to the list of the most plausible vowels which makes their universality higher in substance. In respect of the syllable structure, Korean with its (C)V(C) type shows a moderately complex structure while Turkish with its (C)V(C)(C) type has a complex structure. The coda may consist of two consonants in Turkish while only one consonant is possible in Korean. However, onset is composed of one consonant in both languages. The contrastive study of similarities and differences between Korean and Turkish in terms of phonological characteristics will help not only understand the two languages but also provide useful information to increase the efficacy of Korean language education for Turkish learners of Korean, whose number is rapidly increasing.
- Eckma, Fred. 1977. "Markedness and the Contrastive Analysis Hypothesis." Language Learning 27, 315-330. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-1770.1977.tb00124.x
- Goksel, Asli, and Celia Kerslake. 2005. Turkish: A Comprehensive Grammar. Routledge.
- Haspelmath, Martin, Matthew Dryer, David Gil, and Bernard Comrie. 2005. The World Atlas of Language Structures. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
- Heo, Yong. 1995. "Empty Categories and Korean Phonology." Ph.D. Dissertation, SOAS, University of London.
- Heo, Yong. 2008. "A Research on Consonants for the Interlanguage Phonology." Journal of Korean Language Education 19 (1): 361-378. https://doi.org/10.18209/iakle.2008.19.1.361
- Heo, Yong. 2011. "A Study on Typological Universals in Korean Consonant System." Bilingual Research 45: 331-351.
- Heo, Yong. 2012. "A Contrastive Study on Consonant Systems of Southeast Asian Languages: The Cases of Malay, Thai and Burmese." The Journal of Linguistics Science 63: 343-368.
- Gussenhoven, Carlos, and Haike Jacobs. 1998. Understanding Phonology, Arnold Publishers.
- Gussenhoven, Carlos, and Haike Jacobs. 2013. Contrastive Linguistics. Anyang: Sotong.
- Hulst, Harry van der, and Jeroen van de Weijer. 1991. "Topics in Turkish Phonology." In: H. Boeschoten, and L. Verhoeven (eds.). Structure and use of Turkish. Leiden: Brill, 11-59. 1991.
- Jang, Hyeon A. 2018. "A Study on the Characteristics of Korean Pronunciation of Uzbekistan Learners: Focused on Consonants." MA Dissertation, Keimyung University.
- Kaye, Jonathan. 1989. Phonology: A Cognitive View. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Inc. Publishers.
- Kim, Seon Jung. 1996. "The Representations of Korean Phonological Expressions and Their Consequences." Ph.D Dissertation, SOAS, University of London.
- Kim, Seon Jung. 2011. "A Contrastive Analysis of Korean and English; Contrastive Analysis and Error Analysis of Korean Language Learners." In The Proceedings of the 7th Conference on Korean Language Education, Seoul, 2011, 3-15. Institute of Language Research and Education, Yonsei University.
- Kim, Seon Jung. 2013. "Pronunciation Types of Consonant Sequences and Korean Language Education." ACTA Koreana 16 (1): 45-66. https://doi.org/10.18399/acta.2013.16.1.003
- Kim, Seon Jung, and Kronnapha Boonmalerd. 2014. "Phonological Contrast between Korean and Thai in Terms of Language Universality." Cross-cultural Studies 35: 293-314. https://doi.org/10.21049/ccs.2014.35..293
- Lado, Robert. 1957. Linguistics across Cultures. Applied Linguistics for Language Teachers. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
- Lindblom, Biorn, and Ian Maddieson. 1988. "Phonetic Universals in Consonant Systems." In Language, Speech, and Mind: Studies in Honour of Victoria A. Fromkin, edited by L.M. Hyman, and C.N. Li, 62-78. New York: Routledge.
- Maddieson, Ian. 1980. "Phonological Generalizations from the UCLA Phonological Segment Inventory Database." UCLA Working Papers in Phonetics 50: 57-68.
- Maddieson, Ian. 1984. Patterns of Sounds. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- Schane, Sanford. 1973. Generative Phonology. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
- Schwartz, Jean-Luc, Louis-Jean Boe, Nathalie Vallee, and Christian Abry. 1997. "Major trends in vowel system inventories." Journal of Phonetics 25: 233-253. https://doi.org/10.1006/jpho.1997.0044
- Zimmer, Karl, and Orhan Orgun. 1999. "Turkish." In Handbook of the International Phonetic Association, 154-156. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- The World Atlas of Language Structures Online, http://wals.info/
- Wikipedia, http://www.wikipedia.org/